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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bĕ̀ré
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: daughter-in-law
Russian meaning: невестка, младшая свойственница
Mongolian: *beri-
Tungus-Manchu: *bener
Japanese: *bǝ̀tǝ́-
Comments: For TM one has to suppose a resonant metathesis: *bener < *bere-n.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *beri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 daughter-in-law, bride 2 wife of the elder brother
Russian meaning: 1 невестка, невеста 2 жена старшего брата
Written Mongolian: beri 1, bergen 2 (L 99)
Middle Mongolian: beri (SH, HY 29) 1, berigen (SH, IM), berigan (HY 28) 2
Khalkha: ber 1, bergen 2
Buriat: beri 1, berigen 2
Kalmuck: berǝ 1, bergṇ 2
Ordos: bere 1, bergen 2
Dongxian: bieri 1, beGen 2 (Тод. Дн.)
Baoan: vere 1 (Тод. Бн.)
Dagur: beri (beŕ) 1, berigen 2 (Тод. Даг. 126, MD 122)
Monguor: beri, jeri 'épouse, femme' (SM 25, 492), bergen (SM 25) 2
Mogol: bɛiri 1 (Weiers)
Comments: KW 42, TMN 1, 198, 209. Mong. > Evk. berigei etc., see Doerfer MT 101, Rozycki 29.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *bener
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: younger relative-in-law
Russian meaning: младший свойственник, свойственница (шурин, свояченица)
Evenki: bener
Even: benъr
Negidal: bene
Ulcha: bener, beneli
Nanai: bener
Oroch: bene
Udighe: bene
Comments: ТМС 1, 125.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *bǝ̀tǝ́-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: girl
Russian meaning: девушка
Old Japanese: woto-mje
Middle Japanese: wòtó-mé
Tokyo: otóme, òtome
Kyoto: òtómè
Kagoshima: otomé
Comments: JLTT 513. The root should be kept distinct from OJ wòtò-kwò 'man', which in all probability goes back to *bǝ̀-tu-kua 'male child' and is parallelled by OJ wono-kwo id.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *berV
Meaning: child, to bear
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *bhrā-ter-; (+ *bher- 'to give birth'?)
Altaic: *bère
Kartvelian: ? Georg. bɣar- 'child'
Dravidian: *pārp-
References: ND 230 *berEʔa 'give birth to, child' (but Drav. *ped_- and Kartv. *ber- should be removed - the latter being < Nakh).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *bhrā-t-er-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: brother
Tokharian: A pracar, B procer 'brother' (Adams 421)
Old Indian: bhrā́tar- m. `brother'; bhrātrá- n. `brotherhood', bhrātrya- n. id.
Avestan: brātar-
Other Iranian: OPers brātar- 'brother'
Armenian: eɫbair, gen. eɫbaur `brother'
Old Greek: ion. {phrḗtōr (inschr.) `Bruder' - nowhere found!}, phrḗtēr = adelphós Hsch.; phrǟ́tēr, -eros m. (Dor. phrātḗr Hdn. Gr.), phrǟ́tōr, -oros m. `Mitglied einer Phratrie', phrǟ́trǟ f. 'tribe, clan; political subdivision of the phülḗ'
Slavic: *brātrъ, *brātъ, *brāt(r)ьjā
Baltic: *brā̂tē̃ (-er-es) (1), *brāt-ia-s m., *brāt-iā̃ f., *brā̂-l-ia-s (1) m.
Germanic: *brṓɵēr
Latin: frāter, -tris m. `Brudedr', pl. `Geschwister'
Other Italic: Osk fratrúm `fratrum'; Umbr fratrum, fratrom `id.', frater `frātrēs', fratrex, fretrexs `*frātricus, Haupt der frātrēs'
Celtic: OIr brāthir; Cymr brawd, pl. brodyr, OCorn broder, MBret breuzr, NBret breur, pl. breudeur
Albanian: vɫa Bruder
Russ. meaning: брат
References: WP II 193 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: брат,
Near etymology: укр., блр. брат, ст.-слав. братръ, братъ, сербохорв. бра̏т, словен. brát, стар. bratr (фриз.), чеш. bratr, польск. brat, в.-луж. bratr, н.-луж. bratš.
Further etymology: Древняя основа на -er, форма bratъ, возм., диссимилирована из bratrъ; см. Гуйер, Dekl. 58; Траутман, BSW 36; Кречмер, KZ 31, 368, но ср. также Розвадовский, Qu. Gr. I, 426; Бернекер, 1, 82. Родственно др.-прусск. brāti, уменьш. bratrīkai "братья", лит. broterė̃- lis, лтш. brātarītis "братец" (лит. диал. brotas "любовник", по мнению Буги (РФВ 70, 101), родственно bratъ, но, вероятнее, это заимств. из слав.; см. Шпехт, KZ 62, 249), др.-инд. bhrā́tā, авест. brātar-, арм. eɫbair, греч. φρά̄τηρ, φρά̄τωρ "член фратрии", лат. frāter, ирл. brāthir, гот. brōþar, тох. pracar. Наряду с этим уменьш. формы лит. brólis, лтш. brãlis, а также иллир. βρᾶ (Гесихий); см. Кречмер, Glotta 3, 33; Г. Майер, Alb. St. З, 36; см. Бернекер 1, 82; М. -- Э. 1, 328 и сл. Мн. бра́тья -- старая собир. форма; ср. укр. бра́ття, ст.-слав. братри, брати, болг. бра́тя, сербохорв. бра̏тjа, бра̏ħа, словен. brȃtja, чеш. bratří, др.-чеш. bratřie, др.-польск. braciá (Лось, Jagić-Festschrift, 335), в.-луж. bratřa, которые соответствуют греч. φρᾱτρία; ср. также др.-инд. bhrātryam "братство", см. Бернекер 1, 82.
Pages: 1,207-208
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *brā̂tē̃ (-er-es) (1), *brāt-ia-s m., *brāt-iā̃ f., *brā̂-l-ia-s (1) m.
Meaning: brother
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: brṓterautis `sich verbrüdern', brōterī̃stē `Brüderschaft', dial. (Memel) brōti-s `Bruder̃'; brōtùži-s `Vetter', dial. (Bretkun) brōtē `Mume, Tante'; Kurzf. brṓlis `Bruder'
Lettish: brãlis 'Bruder; alle, die durch Bande der Verwandtschaft Bekanntschaft od. durch sonstige Beziehungen miteinander verbunden sind'; brātarītis 'Brüderchen'
Old Prussian: brāti, brote `Bruder', brātrīkai `Brüder'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *brṓɵēr
Meaning: brother
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: brōɵar m. (cons) `brother'
Old Norse: brōδir m. `Bruder'
Norwegian: broder
Swedish: broder
Danish: broder
Old English: brōɵor (brōɵer, -ur), dat. brēɵer, pl. brōɵor (-ɵer, -ɵur, -ɵru, -ɵro) m. `brother'; brōder `id.'
Old Frisian: brōther m.
Old Saxon: brōthar m.
Middle Dutch: broeder m.
Dutch: broeder m.
Old Franconian: bruother m.
Middle Low German: brōder
Old High German: bruoder m. (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: bruoder an. st. m. 'bruder; klostergeistlicher; wallfahrer'
German: Bruder m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 288
Root: bhrā́ter-
English meaning: brother
German meaning: `Angehöriger der Großfamilie, Bruder, Blutsverwandter'
Material: Ai. bhrā́tar-, av. apers. brātar- `Bruder'; osset. ärvád `Bruder, Verwandter'; arm. eɫbair, Gen. eɫbaur ds.; (*bhrātēr, *bhrātrós);

    neuphryg. βρατερε `frātrī'; mys.-phryg. braterais = φράτραις?,

    gr. φρήτηρ (ion.) ἀδελφός Hes., att. φρά̄τηρ, φρά̄τωρ `Mitglied einer φρατρία (Sippe, Brüderschaft)';

    ven. vhraterei `frātrī';

    lat. frāter `Bruder', osk. fratrúm, umbr. fratrum, fratrom `frātrum' usw. umher späteslat. frātruēɫis s. WH. I 542);

    air. brāth(a)ir `Bruder, Angehöriger der Großfamilie', cymr. sg. brawd, brodyr, acorn. broder, mbret. breuzr, nbret. breur, Pl. breudeur ds.;

    got. brōþar, aisl. brōðir, ahd. bruoder, ags. brōþor `Bruder'; Kurzformen dazu ahd. MN Buobo, mhd. buobe `Bube', ags. MN Bōfa, Bōja (> engl. boy), norw. dial. boa `Bruder' usw.; ferner ahd. MN Buole, mhd. buole `Verwandter, Geliebter', mnd. bōle `Verwandter, Bruder' usw. (s. Kluge11 unter Bube, Buhle);

    apr. brāti (Vok. brote) `Bruder', lit. broterė̃lis, Kurzform brožis, batis, brólis, lett. b(r)ãlis `Brüderchen', brātarītis `lieber Bruder!'; aksl. bratrъ, bratъ `Bruder', Kurzform serb. baća, аčеch. bát'a ds., russ. bátja, báčka `Vater, Priester'.

    Vgl. noch ai. bhrātrá-m `Bruderschaft'; gr. φρά̄τρᾱ, jon. φρήτρη ds.; ai. bhrātrya-m: gr. φρᾱτρία, aksl. bratrьja, bratьja ds., lat. frātria `Frau des Bruders'.

    Toch. A pracar (Dual pratri), В procer.

References: WP. II 193, WH. I 541 f., 866, Specht KZ 62, 249, Fraenkel REtIE 2, 6 f., Risch Mus. Helv. 1, 118.
Pages: 163-164
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *pārp-
Meaning : child; young
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *pār-
Proto-Telugu : *pāp-a
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *pāp
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *pār-
Meaning : young of animals
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : pārppu
Tamil meaning : fledgling, young of birds, young of tortoise, frog, toad, lizard, etc., young of quadrupeds
Tamil derivates : pārval fledgling, young of deer and other animals
Malayalam : pārppu
Malayalam meaning : shoal of young fish, small fry
Kannada : pāpa
Kannada meaning : small child
Kannada derivates : (Gul.) pāra boy
Notes : Kan. pāpa < *pār-(u)pa.
Number in DED : 4095
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *pāp-a
Meaning : infant, babe, child
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : pāpa
Additional forms : Also pāpãḍu boy
Number in DED : 4095
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *pāp
Meaning : child
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : pāp (pl. pāpkul; voc. pāpā) "child, baby, young of animals"
Ollari Gadba : pāp "child, young one, small one (of articles)"
Additional forms : Also Ollari pāponḍi young, small, green (of fruit); pē-pāp young calf
Number in DED : 4095
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : PVRV
Meaning : child, to bear
Eurasiatic : *berV
Afroasiatic : *bar-
Sino-Caucasian : ST *p(h)reŋ 'bear, be born'
Reference : ND 230.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *bar-
Meaning: child, son, daughter
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *bar- 'son'
Berber: *barar- 'son'
Egyptian: Dem bry 'young', COP beri 'new'
Western Chadic: *bar-/*byar- 'young girl' 1, 'child' 2, 'son' 3
Central Chadic: *bar- 'young boy, male animal'
South Cushitic: *mbur- 'older boy, lad, young man'
Dahalo (Sanye): *bōr- 'boy'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-scu,afaset-dhl,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 10
Proto-Semitic: *bar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'son'
Phoenician: br (n.m.) (T, 54)
Hebrew: bar (KB deutsch, 146) (< Arm)
Aramaic: DA, Sam, OAram OffAr, Nab, Palm, Hatra br (HJ, 188-193); Sam bar (Tal, 103),
Biblical Aramaic: bar (KB deutsch, 1682-3)
Judaic Aramaic: bar (Ja, 188), bēr, bar (Sokoloff, 97), br (HJ, 191)
Modern Aramaic: bar (Maclean, 37)
Epigraphic South Arabian: Sab brw (SD, 32); Min brw (LM, 24)
Amharic: cf. yäʔayn brät 'pupil (eye)' (K, 884), possibly originally 'the daughter of eye'
East Ethiopic: Zwy yīn brät 'pupil of the eye' (LGur 156), possibly originally 'the daughter of eye'
Gurage: Muh. yen brät 'pupil of the eye' (LGur 156), possibly originally 'the daughter of eye'
Mehri: bǝr (JM, 54)
Jibbali: bɛr (JJ, 28)
Harsusi: ber (JH, 19)
Soqotri: bar (LS, 95)
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-jud,semet-new,semet-sar,semet-amh,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *barar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'son'
Ayr: a-barar
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): a-burir
Tawllemmet: barar
Notes: Irregular vocalism in Ahg.
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ayr,brbet-ahg,brbet-twl,brbet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *bar-/*byar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'young girl' 1, 'child' 2, 'son' 3
Hausa: bḗrà 1
Angas: par 2 [Fl]
Galambu: bàrywà 1 [ShB: 82]
Warji: mbiri-na 3 [SNb]
Guruntum: bòoro 1 [Ja]
Fyer: ḅarà 3 [JgR]
Notes: cf.Kir barei, Mangas bere [Cs] 'small'
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-ang,wchet-glm,wchet-wrj,wchet-grn,wchet-fyr,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *bar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: young boy, male animal
Gude: barǝ̀wá [Hs]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-gde,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *mbur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'older boy, lad, young man'
Ma'a (Mbugu): mburatú
Notes: Ehr HRSC 138
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-maa,scuet-notes,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: bóóreet_e (== N1)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'boy'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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