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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *áp`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Turkic: *apa
Mongolian: *ab[u]
Tungus-Manchu: *apa
Korean: *àpí
Comments: EAS 140, Цинциус 1972a, 32-37. A common Altaic "nursery" word. Cf. *ĕp`a.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *apa (*appa)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Old Turkic: apa (Orkh., OUygh.) 'ancestors'
Karakhanid: apa (MK) 'father, bear' ("Kypch."), (KB) 'ancestor'
Turkish: aba
Tatar: aba (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: awa
Azerbaidzhan: aba (dial.)
Turkmen: aba (dial.)
Khakassian: aba
Oyrat: aba 'father, bear'
Chuvash: oba 'bear'
Tuva: ava
Kirghiz: aba
Bashkir: apa (dial.)
Balkar: appa, aba
Salar: aba (Kakuk), aba, apa (ССЯ)
Comments: EDT 5, VEWT 1, ЭСТЯ 1, 54-58, Федотов 2, 281, Лексика 305, Аникин 71. Сf. also *bāpa 'grandfather, mother's father' (Turkm. bāba etc., see ЭСТЯ 2, 10-13, Лексика 294, 305). Voicing of -p- in many languages is probably due to expressive gemination.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ab[u]
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 father 2 paternal uncle
Russian meaning: 1 отец 2 дядя со стороны отца
Written Mongolian: abu, aba 1, abaɣa 2 (L 2, 5)
Middle Mongolian: abaqa (HY 28, SH) 2, abaɣa (MA 402) 2
Khalkha: av 1; avga 2
Buriat: aba 1; abgaj 2
Kalmuck: āwǝ 1; awɣǝ 2
Ordos: awaGa, aGǟ 2
Dongxian: aba, apa, avi
Baoan: ābe, abo
Shary-Yoghur: awi, aba
Monguor: āba, āwa (SM 1); āGa 2
Mogol: ZM ɔ̄ɣɔ̄j (12-16) 2
Comments: KW 19, 21. Mong. *abaga > Chag. abaqa etc. (see TMN 1, 108, Щербак 1997, 199); > Evk. awaga etc., see Doerfer MT 89.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *apa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grandfather; uncle (elder brother of father, mother)
Russian meaning: дедушка; дядя (старший брат отца, матери)
Negidal: apa
Nanai: papa (Naikh.), fafa (Bik.) (redupl.)
Comments: ТМС 1, 47, 2, 34.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-neg,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *àpí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: father
Russian meaning: отец
Modern Korean: abǝǯi, (vulg.) abi
Middle Korean: àpí
Comments: Nam 338, KED 1074.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *aṗV
Meaning: father
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *pǝ-tēr
Altaic: *áp`a (also *ép`V 'grandfather)
Uralic: *appe
Kartvelian: (*ṗaṗ-)
Dravidian: *ap-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'eppĕ- дедушка, старший родственник
References: ND 5 *ʔaba ~ *ʔaṗa (w/o Ur.?)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *pa-t-er-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: father
Tokharian: A pācar, B pācer (PT *pācēr) 'father' (Adams 365)
Old Indian: pitár- m. `father'
Avestan: nom. pitā, obl. pitar- 'father'
Armenian: hair, gen. haur, pl. nom. harkh
Old Greek: patḗr, gen. patrós, acc. patéra m. `Vater'
Germanic: *fadḗr m.; *fáɵ-ō/*fad-ṓ(n-) f.
Latin: pater, gen. -tris m. `Vater'
Other Italic: Osk patír `pater'; Marr patres `patris'; Umbr dat. patre `patrī', iu-pater `Iuppiter'
Celtic: OIr athir `Vater'; Cymr -gwal-adr, Bret ual-art; Gaul Ateronius (MN)
Russ. meaning: отец
References: WP II 4
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *fadḗr; *fáɵō/*fadṓ(n)
Meaning: father
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: fadar m. (cons) `father'
Old Norse: faδir m. `Vater'
Norwegian: fader
Swedish: fader
Danish: fader
Old English: fäder (feder) m. `father', faɵu, -e f., faɵe, -an f. `father's swester, paternal aunt'; { fädera }
English: father
Old Frisian: feder; federia
Old Saxon: fadar
Middle Dutch: vāder m.; { vedder }
Dutch: vader m.
Old Franconian: fader
Middle Low German: vāder; { vedere }
Old High German: fater (8.Jh.); fetiro, fatureo `Vetter, Oheim'
Middle High German: vater an. m. 'vater, spez. von gott, vom landesherrn, von geistl. würdernträgern'; { vade, vate `omheining' }; vɛter(e) wk. m. 'vatersbruder, vetter; bruderssohn; (pl.) stammverwandte'
German: Vater m.; { Vetter }
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1517
Root: pǝtḗ(r) Gen. pǝtr-és, -ós
English meaning: father
German meaning: `Vater, Haupt der Großfamilie'
Derivatives: di̯ēus-pǝtēr `Himmelvater'; somo-pǝtōr `vom demselben Vater'; pǝtri̯o- `väterlich'; pǝtruu̯i̯o-s `Vatersbruder'
Material: Ai. pitár-; av. pitar- neben Nom. pta, ta usw.; arm. hair (*pǝtēr), Gen. haur (*pǝtros); gr. πατήρ, πατρός, im Kompositum εὐ-πάτωρ `ein guter Vater'; lat. pater, -tris `Vater'; patres `Vorfahren, Patrizier'; osk. patir `Vater', umbr. Iu-pater `Juppiter', Dat. Sg. osk. patereí, mars.-lat. patre; air. athir (*pǝtēr), Gen. athar (*pǝtros) `Vater'; über gall. gutu-ater s. oben S. 413; got. fadar, aisl. faðir, ags. fæder, ahd. fater `Vater'; toch. A pācar, В pācer ds.; über ai. Dyāus pitā usw. s. oben S. 413.

    Ableitnngen: Ai. pítrya-, gr. πάτριος, lat. patrius `väterlich', mir. aithre f. `väterliche Sippe'; ai. pítr̥vya-, av. tūirya- (*ptǝrvya-), lat. patruus, ahd. fetiro, fatirro, fatureo (germ.*faðuru̯ia-) `Vaterbruder', nhd. `Vetter', ags. fædera `Vatersbruder' (vgl. gr. πάτρως aus*pǝtrōus ds., mit verschobener Bedeutung πατρώιος `väterlich'); apers. hama-pitar- = gr. ὁμο-πάτωρ, vgl. aisl. sam-feðra `von demselben Vater' (*-fadrjans); vgl. gr. πατρυιός `Stiefvater' (nach μητρυιά̄ `Stiefmutter'), arm. yauray ds.; nur einzelsprachlich sind gr. πάτρη, att. πάτρᾱ `Vaterland', πατρίς, -ίδος f. ds., lat. patria ds., patrōnus `Schutzherr', patrō, -āre `vollbringe, vollziehe'; proprius `eigen, eigentümlich, beständig' aus *prop(a)trios `von den προπάτορες, den Altvorderen als ererbter Besitz überkommen' (?), s. WH. II 374 f.; mcymr. edryð `Wohnstätte'könnte ursprünglich als `väterlicher Besitz' mit mir. aithre identisch sein; aisl. feðgar Pl. `Vater und Sohn' (vgl. gr. πατρικός `vaterlich'); feðgin Pl. `Eltern' (*feðr-gin).

References: WP. II 4, WH. II 263 ff.; vom Lallwort pā- ausgegangen? Kretschmer WZKM. 51, 315 f; oder zu pō(i)- schützen?
Pages: 829
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 21
Proto: *appe
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: father-in-law
German meaning: Schwiegervater
Finnish: appi (gen. apen, dial. apin) 'Schwiegervater'
Saam (Lapp): vuop'pâ -pp- (N), vuohppa (L), vi̊hp (T), vūhp (Kld.), vuøhp (Not.)
Mari (Cheremis): owǝ̑ (KB), owo (J)
Khanty (Ostyak): up, op (Trj.) 'Schwiegervater; Sohn des Schwiegervaters; Bruder des Vaters der Frau; älterer Bruder der Frau', üp (DN), up (O) 'Schwiegervater'
Mansi (Vogul): apā (TJ), up (So.) 'тесть', up, op (N) 'Schwiegervater; Schwager, der ältere Bruder der Frau'
Hungarian: ipa (dial.) 'Schwiegervater', apa 'Vater; dial. Schwiegervater', após 'Schwiegervater, (altung.) Väterchen'
Sammalahti's version: *i6ppi6
References: FUV; SKES; MUSz. 819; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Stein.Fgr.Vok. 38
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,uralet-lit,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ṗaṗ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: дед
English meaning: grandfather
Georgian: ṗaṗ-, ṗaṗa
Megrel: ṗaṗu
Laz: ṗaṗul-, ṗaṗu
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 152, EWK 271. Детское слово.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ápa-
Meaning : father (hon.)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *apa-
Proto-Telugu : *appa
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *apa
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ā̆p-
Notes : Irregular (expressive?) vowel lengthening is observed in some Gondwan languages. This is one of the two main PDR roots for 'father', the other being *t-and_-; judging by the difference in meaning, the latter was the more 'formal' appellation (which is why it is more frequently met with archaic pronominal prefixes than *ápa-), whereas the latter is clearly a "children's" word. // Present in 4/6 branches.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *apa-
Meaning : father
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : appan_, appu
Tamil meaning : father; term of endearment used to little children or inferiors
Tamil derivates : appacci father; appāttai elder sister; appi mistress of house; elder sister; appappa, appappā excl. of pity or surprise; appā excl. of surprise, grief, or pain; appāṭā excl. of surprise or relief
Malayalam : appan
Malayalam meaning : father
Malayalam derivates : appu affectionate appellation of boys; appā̆, appappā, appaṭā interj. of pain or surprise
Kannada : appa
Kannada meaning : father; frequently added to the proper names of men as a term of common respect; used endearingly to children by their elders
Kannada derivates : apa father; appu affectionate appellation of boys; apa, appā̆, appappā̆ interj. denoting surprise, pain, or grief; appāḍa interj. of pain or surprise
Kodagu : appë
Kodagu meaning : father
Tulu : appa, appè
Tulu meaning : affix of respect added to proper names of men
Tulu derivates : appè mother; appa a mode of calling a mother; appa interj. of surprise; appappā interj. of surprise or sorrow
Notes : The stem *apa-n is obviously of PSDR origin; everything else (Tulu appè, Tam. appi, etc.) is isolated, has little or no external parallels and probably represents later independent formations.
Number in DED : 0156
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *appa
Meaning : father; mother; elder sister; frequently added to names of men as a term of common respect
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : appa
Number in DED : 156
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *apa
Meaning : a k. of relative
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : appa "father's sister"
Naikri : appo/appok (pl. appokuḷ) "wife's younger brother"
Number in DED : 156
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ā̆p-
Meaning : father
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *āp-, *tap-
Konda : aposi
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *āp-
Notes : In Kui a shift of meaning: 'father' > 'son' (such a shift happens in SDR as well, when the word for 'father' is applied to children as term of endearment).
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *āp-, *tap-
Meaning : father
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : āpōṛā̆l
Maria Gondi : tape
Koya Gondi : tappe
Maria Gondi (Mitchell) : -
Maria Gondi (Lind) : tāpe
Additional forms : Also Gondi_Tr maipō my father; mī-āpō thy father; Gondi_Ko (Su.) tappe (his, her) father
Number in DED : 156
Number in CVOTGD : 133, 1656
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-gondi_m,gonet-gondi_l,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : aposi
Meaning: father (with reference to 3rd person)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 156
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *āp-
Meaning : boy, son
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : āpo (pl. āporu)
Additional forms : Also Kui āpi girl, wife
Number in DED : 156
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-addition,kuiet-dednum,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'eppĕ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): дедушка, старший родственник
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ạppạ #
Proto-Itelmen: *'ap(a)
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ạppạ # "
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): дедушка 1, батюшка (священник) 2, отец, папа voc. 3, паук 4
Chukchee: ɛ́pǝ, ɛpɛ- 1, ɛpɛ́-pil 2, ɛpɛ́-ɛpɛj ", apaapáɣ-lǝŋǝn 4
Koryak: áppa, appa-pil, apáppil* (III) 1, 3, apáppo (II) 2, 3
Palan: pepha 1, pepe 3
Alutor: apapà, apō 3
Comments: Сюда же чук. ɛpɛ́ci 'бурый медведь' из эвфемистичного 'дедушка' как в других языках Сибири. Чук. ɛpɛ́-qɛj 'бабушка'.
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'ap(a)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): отец, кум
West Itelmen: 'ap-lat-kaz
West Itelmen meaning: necessitudine baptismi testandi jungi
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): kumać się
South Itelmen: 'apa-č ['apa-č*]
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): pater
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): ojciec
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVPV
Meaning : father
Eurasiatic : *aṗV
Afroasiatic : *ʔab-
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔŭṗV́
Austric : PAA *bʔa / *ba, Tai *bo, PAN *aba 'father'
Amerind (misc.) : *ipa 'man' (R 456)
African (misc.) : Bantu *-bààbá 'father'.
Reference : ND 5; GE 28 *papa (+ NS).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔab-
Meaning: father
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔab- 'father'
Berber: *ʔab(b)- 'father'
Egyptian: ꜣb.t 'family' (OK), 'parents' (n)
Western Chadic: *ʔa/ub- 'father'
Central Chadic: *ʔab- 'father'
East Chadic: *ʔab- 'man' (?)
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ʔab- 'father'
Saho-Afar: *ʔab- 'father'
Low East Cushitic: *ʔab- 'father'
High East Cushitic: *ʔab- 'father, uncle'
South Cushitic: *ʔab- 'father'
Omotic: Cf. Ong yooba 'person' ('man' SLLE; given as pl. in ST 129), Dizi ʔyab Fl, yab Bla Om 'person', Sheko Nayi yaab id.
Notes: A nursery word.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-agw,afaset-sho,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-scu,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1
Proto-Semitic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Akkadian: abu 'father' (CAD A1, 67; AHw., 7)
Ugaritic: ʔab id. (DUL, 2)
Phoenician: ʔb id. (T, 1)
Hebrew: ʔāb id. (KB, 1)
Judaic Aramaic: ʔabbā id. (Ja., 2)
Syrian Aramaic: ʔabbā id. (Brock., 1)
Mandaic Aramaic: ab, aba id. (DM, 1)
Arabic: ʔab- id. (BK 1, 6)
Epigraphic South Arabian: SAB MIN QAT ʔb id. (SD, 1; LM, 1; Ricks, 3)
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔab id. (LGz., 2)
Tigre: ʔab id. (LH, 365)
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ʔabbo id. (Bass., 515)
Amharic: abbat id. (K, 1199)
Harari: āw ДОДЕЛАТЬ
East Ethiopic: ZWY ābu, SEL abot, WOL abbä, ab_ot id. (LGur., 4)
Gurage: CHA EZ̆A MUH MSQ GOG ab, ENM GYT ab_ SOD ab_i, CHA EZ̆̆A END aw id. (LGur., 4)
Mehri: ḥáyb id. (JM, 2)
Jibbali: ʔiy id. (JJ, 1), cf. ʔeb 'big'
Harsusi: ḥayb id. (JH, 1)
Soqotri: ʔeʔǝb 'big'
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-sar,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-hrr,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *ʔab(b)-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Tawllemmet: abba
Izayan: ibba
Iznassen: ebbʷa
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-twl,brbet-izy,brbet-izn,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ꜣb.t (AE)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'family' (OK), 'parents' (n)
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ʔa/ub-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Hausa: ūbà
Geji: abà [Kr N 28]
Notes: Secondary u- in Hausa before -b.
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-gej,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Munjuk: apiy [TMnj]
Buduma=Yedina: aba [LBud]
Musgu: ába [LMsg]
Notes: irregular devoicing in Mnj.
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mnj,cchet-bud,cchet-msg,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'man'
Somrai: ʔàbe [ CLR: 231 ]
Mubi: gēbí [Jg]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-smr,echet-mub,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: father
Qemant: abaa
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-kem,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Saho: abba
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-saho,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Somali: aba, aaba
Oromo (Galla): abbaa
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-oro,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father, uncle'
Sidamo: aabbo
Darasa (Gedeo): aabbo
Burji (Bambala, Dashe): aabboo
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-sid,hecet-dar,hecet-bmb,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *ʔab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'father'
Asa-Aramanic: aba
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-asa,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔŭṗV́
Meaning: father
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʔŏbV̄(jV)
Sino-Tibetan: *paH
Yenisseian: *ʔob
Burushaski: *-́pe
Comments and references : HGC 27.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔŏbV̄(jV)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔbu A (/*ʔɔbiju)
Proto-Lak: p:u
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔaba
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔap:aj
Proto-Khinalug: aba
Proto-West Caucasian: *(a)ṕ:ǝ
Notes: A nursery word; however, its common NC ancestry can not be doubted. The palatalisation in PWC *ṕ: can be explained by the influence of *-j. See Abdokov 1983, 86 (although the PAK form (in view of its AT correlates) should be kept apart from PEC *dādājV 'father' (q.v.).

    In Lak. there occurred a reduction of the first vowel (cf. an analogous feature in Kryz.). Khin. has also a form bɨj 'father', but this is most likely an old Shakh-Dagh loanword.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʔɔbu A (/*ʔɔbiju)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Tsezi: obiju
Ginukh: obu
Khvarshi: obu
Inkhokvari: obu
Bezhta: abo
Gunzib: ɔbu
Comments: PTsKh *ʔobu / *ʔobiju, PGB *ʔɔbu.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: p:u
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Lak form: p:u
Comments: Cf. gen. bu-t:a-l ( = Khvarsh. obu-ṭi-, Inkh. obu-di-). In Khosr. but:a can be used also as a direct stem.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʔaba
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Akusha: aba (Ur.)
Chiragh: father
Comments: Cf. also Kub., Kharb. aba, Kait. uba.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔap:aj
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 father 2 father-in-law 3 grandfather
Lezghian: ap:aj 2
Tabasaran: aba 3
Kryz: bäj 1
Archi: ab-t:u 1
Udi: ap:e-r 1
Comment: Cf. also Tab. lit. aba 'father', Arch. abaj 'parents' (the second syllable is reduced before the adject. suffix -t:u in abt:u).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-krz,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: aba
North Caucasian etymology: 889
Meaning: grandfather
Khinalug form: aba
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *(a)ṕ:ǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Abkhaz: ab
Abaza: aba
Adyghe:
Kabardian: āda
Ubykh: tʷǝ
Comments: PAT *abV (cf. also Abkh. plur. ába-ča); PAK *at:a, *t:ǝ (cf. also Ad. /in compounds/ āt(a) ). Ub. def. form á-tʷ.

    The correspondences are regular, thus it seems reasonable to accept Deeters's etymology (Deeters 1963,39), pace Shagirov (1, 56-57). Cf. also Mészáros 1934,208 (Abkh.-Ub.).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *paH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Tibetan: a-pha, pha father.
Burmese: a-phaʔ father.
Lushai: pa a father.
Kiranti: *pä́, *pä́p
Comments: BG: Bodo -pa father, Garo pha, ǝpa. Cf. *Pă 'man, male' (perhaps the same root).
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *pä́, *pä́p
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: father
Tulung: pap
Kaling: 'päp
Limbu:
Dumi: pa
Kulung: pa 'father', papa 'forefather', phǝpa 'grandfather'
Yamphu: pa, pa:ba
Comments: Toba 89 *'päp.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: pa, -mba
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: father
Comments: also familiarly: father-in-law.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: pa
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Comments: vide papa.
dumet-prnum,dumet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: pa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: father
Nepali: buvā.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: pa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: bound morph.
Meaning: father
Comments: amba your father.
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔob
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: father
Ket: ōp, pl. obaŋ6
Yug: op, pl. obe:ŋ3
Kottish: ōp, pl. ōpan, ōpaŋ; Ass. (Бол.) ob, (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл., Ф.) op, (Кл.) öb; Koib. op (Ф.)
Arin: b́ap (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.); (Срсл.) iṕa; (Лоск.) ajap
Pumpokol: ab (Сл., Срсл., Кл.)
Comments: ССЕ 197. Werner 2, 50 *ob(ǝ).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́pe
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: grandfather
Yasin: -pe
Hunza: -́pi
Nagar: -́pi
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *(ʔ)ba
Meaning: father
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *bʔa / *ba
Austroasiatic meaning: father
Proto-Austronesian: *aba
Austronesian meaning: father
Proto-Thai: bo.B
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *bʔa / *ba
Meaning: father
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: bo.B
Proto-Katuic: WK *baʔ /*buʔ
Proto-Bahnaric: *bʔaʔ
Khmer: p]a:
Proto-Monic: *ba:ʔ, m-
Khasi: pa father
References: Kh 714, S-26, Sid
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,aaet-mon,aaet-khasi,aaet-bib,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *bua / *bo
Meaning: father
Presyllable: CǝN-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *bua / *bo
References: P-677; TK7.24
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *bua / *bo
Meaning: father
Presyllable: CǝN-
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru: mpua.B
Bru meaning: father
Kui: mpho.B
Kui meaning: father
Ngeu: phuǝ.B
Ngeu meaning: father
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-wpre,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,wkatet-kui,wkatet-kuime,wkatet-ngeu,wkatet-nyeume,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: *ʔbaʔ
Meaning: father
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Bahnar: ʔbaʔ
Bahnar meaning: father
Proto-North Bahnaric: *baʔ.T
Proto-West Bahnaric: *bǝʔ V?
References: PNB-319, SBS-2, JS-776
banet-meaning,banet-prpr,banet-prnum,banet-bah,banet-bahme,banet-nob,banet-web,banet-refer,

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North Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-North-Bahnaric: *baʔ.T
Meaning: father
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Rengao form: baʔ.T
Rengao meaning: father
Jeh form: baaʔ.T
Jeh meaning: father
Sedang form: pa.L
Sedang meaning: father, child, uncle
Hre form: baʔ.T
Hre meaning: father
Didra: baʔ.T
References: PNB-319, GS-158
nobet-meaning,nobet-prnum,nobet-ren,nobet-renme,nobet-jeh,nobet-jehme,nobet-sed,nobet-sedme,nobet-hre,nobet-hreme,nobet-didr,nobet-refer,

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South Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-South Bahnaric:
Meaning: father
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Stieng form: ba:
Stieng meaning: marker of male names
References: SBS-2
sobet-meaning,sobet-prnum,sobet-sti,sobet-stime,sobet-refer,

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West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-West- Bahnaric: *bǝʔ V?
Meaning: father
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Nhaheung form: bi:
Nhaheung meaning: father
Brao form: bǝ:ʔ father
Other WB languages: SAP, CHG bǝʔ
References: JS-776
webet-meaning,webet-prnum,webet-nha,webet-nhame,webet-brao,webet-other,webet-refer,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong:
Meaning: father
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: bố
Vietnamese meaning: father
Muong dialect: bo.3
Nguon dialect (1): bo.3
Nguon dialect (2): bo.3
Arem: pùǝʔ
Proto-Ruc: VN
Ruc (Ferlus' rec.): bɔ:.4
Ruc meaning: father
Notes: cf. 3923
References: NTF33
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-vietme,vimet-anng,vimet-ncl,vimet-nyt,vimet-arem,vimet-prru,vimet-rntf,vimet-rucme,vimet-note,vimet-bib,

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Monic etymology :

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Proto-Monic: *ba:ʔ
Meaning: father
Presyllable: N-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Modern Mon: ma
Old Mon: ʔambaʔ, mbaʔ
Middle Mon: mba
Nyakur: pha:ʔ.B
Nyakur meaning: father
References: N156; S-26
monet-meaning,monet-prpr,monet-prnum,monet-word,monet-om,monet-mm,monet-tc,monet-tcme,monet-bib,

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Aslian etymology :

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Proto-Aslian:
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Meaning: breast
Semai: mɛ:m
asliet-prnum,asliet-meaning,asliet-smi,

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