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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ā́nta
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: oath; comrade, match
Russian meaning: клятва; друг, товарищ
Turkic: *Ānt
Mongolian: *anda
Tungus-Manchu: *anda
Japanese: *ánta
Comments: EAS 153, KW 10, Владимирцов 318, Poppe 83, VEWT, ТМС. Despite TMN 2, 128, Щербак 1997, 98, there is no reason to suppose Turk. > Mong.; for TM, however, a borrowing from Mong. cannot be excluded (see Poppe 1972, 100, TMN 1, 152, Doerfer MT 37, Rozycki 18).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Ānt
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: oath
Russian meaning: клятва
Old Turkic: ant (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: and (MK)
Turkish: ant (andɨ)
Tatar: ant
Middle Turkic: ant
Uzbek: ɔnt
Uighur: ant
Azerbaidzhan: and
Turkmen: ant
Oyrat: ant-ɨq- 'to take an oath'
Halaj: a:nd
Kirghiz: ant
Kazakh: ant
Noghai: ant
Bashkir: ant
Balkar: ant
Karaim: ant
Karakalpak: ant
Kumyk: ant
Comments: EDT 176, VEWT 20, TMN 2, 128, ЭСТЯ 1, 151. Original vowel length is proved by Turk., Az. -d.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *anda
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 friend 2 oath
Russian meaning: 1 друг 2 клятва
Written Mongolian: anda 1, andaɣar, andaɣai 2 (L 42)
Middle Mongolian: anda 1 , andaqar 2 (SH), andoɣ- (IM 432) 'to make an oath', andă 1, andaɣar 2 (MA 102)
Khalkha: and 1, andgaj 2
Buriat: anda 1
Kalmuck: andǝ, andṇ 1, andǝɣǝr 2
Ordos: anda 1
Dongxian: andaɣa(n) 2
Baoan: andǝrǝG 2
Dagur: ande 1 (MD 115)
Shary-Yoghur: andaGar 2
Monguor: ndaGa (SM 261) 2, (MGCD amdaGa)
Mogol: andaɣ (ZM 24-9b) 2
Comments: KW 10, MGCD 106, 624, TMN 1, 151-152.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *anda
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: friend
Russian meaning: друг
Evenki: anda
Negidal: anda
Literary Manchu: anda
Jurchen: al-da-xaj (330) cf. *alda (1-31), an-dan-do (816) 'to follow'
Ulcha: anda
Orok: anda
Nanai: anda
Oroch: anda
Udighe: anda
Comments: ТМС 1, 42-43. TM (Nan. andaχa etc.) > Dag. antaka (Тод. Даг. 121).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ánta
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 enemy 2 other
Russian meaning: 1 враг 2 другой
Old Japanese: ata 1, ata-si 2
Middle Japanese: átá 1, átà-sì, ada-si 2
Tokyo: adá 1
Kyoto: ádà 1
Kagoshima: ádà 1
Comments: Modern dialects point to *ántà; RJ has átá. See JLTT 376-377.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *anTV
Meaning: to join, together
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ā́nta
Dravidian: *aṇ-/*anḍ-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *ŋĭčẹ- 'two' (?)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *aṇái- ~ *anḍ-
Meaning : to join, unite
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṇai ~ *anḍ-
Proto-Telugu : *anṭ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *anḍ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *anḍ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *ā̆nṛ-s-
Brahui : han-inging
Notes : A common PDR stem commonly displaying two variants, with *anḍ- being the exclusive one in all of Central Dravidian and *aṇái- safely reconstructed only for PSDR (and Telugu, if anãgu 'to mix' really belongs here). Some of the forms with -ṇṭ- may be due to contamination with *anṭ- 'to stick'. The two stems, bisyllabic and monosyllabic with retroflex cluster, may well be related on a higher level (with the original root being *aṇ-, which then may have been preserved as an archaism in Tam. aṇṇu), but separate origins cannot be excluded either. // Present in 6/6 branches.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,dravet-bra,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai ~ *anḍ-
Meaning : to approach; to join
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to approach, come near, touch, come in contact with, copulate with
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to join, put close (as earth to a tree), embrace, hold, tie, fasten (as animals), tie up in a bunch; n. coition; a yoke of oxen; aṇaippu embracing; area that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in one day; aṇmai, aṇumai, aṇimai nearness, proximity; aṇavu (aṇavi-) to go near, approach, come close to, embrace; aṇāvu (aṇāvi-) to approach; aṇa (-pp-, -nt-) to be joined, united; aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-) id.; aṇi (-v-, -nt-) to join with (tr.); adv. near; aṇiyan_ who is near by; aṇuku (aṇuki-) to approach; aṇukkam, aṇukku nearness, proximity; aṇukkan_ one who is near, intimate; fem. aṇukki; aṇṇu (aṇṇi-) to approach, draw near, join, unite with; aṇṇimai nearness; aṇṇaṇi in close proximity; aṇmu (aṇmi-), aṇpu (aṇpi-) to approach; aṇṭu (aṇṭi-) to approach, take refuge in; aṇṭai nearness, vicinity
Malayalam : aṇayuka
Malayalam meaning : to approach, arrive
Malayalam derivates : aṇavu arrival, closeness, love; aṇekka to bring into contact, embrace, hug; aṇa yoke, pair; aṇukuka to approach; aṇaccal embracing, drawing near; aṇappu embracing, an embrace; aṇayam vicinity, neighbourhood; (Kauṭ.) aṇukkan one who is near; intimate; aṇṭa nearness, proximity; aṇṭuka, aṇṇuka, aṇpuka to approach
Kannada : aṇe, aṇi
Kannada meaning : to come near, come in contact, touch, embrace
Kannada derivates : aṇe approach; aṇi joining, fitness, order; aṇiyara fitness; aṇasu that holds firmly together, a ferrule; a throng; aṇugu nearness; aṇṭu to come or be in contact with, touch (intr., tr.), embrace; n. menses (? < Te.); aṇṭisu to place in contact; aṇḍisu to go near, approach, resort to, come or go to for protection; aṇḍu going near, an approach, a resort; aṇḍe nearness, approach, side of anything
Kodagu : aṇḍa
Kodagu meaning : side
Tulu : aṇepuni
Tulu meaning : to come in contact, press
Tulu derivates : anepini, anepuni to touch, hug, embrace; aṇasụ a handle, hilt
Proto-Nilgiri : *anḍ-
Notes : With a certain effort one could trace back all of these forms to a single monosyllabic protostem *aṇ-; however, there is no guarantee that such is indeed the case. Two forms that continuously crop up all over SDR are the bisyllabic stem *aṇai-, with a simple retroflex nasal, and the monosyllabic stem *anḍ- with a retroflex cluster. Most of the other stems (aṇi-, aṇa-, aṇ-) are only found in the Tamil area and may reflect dialectalisms or latter day contaminations. As to whether *aṇai- and *anḍ- go back to the same source, this is somewhat questionable. They are certainly two different entities on the PSDR level, albeit with similar meanings; on that level, there was no productive model according to which *aṇai- could become *anḍ- or vice versa.
Number in DED : 0120
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *anḍ-
Meaning : to set in place
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : aṇḍ- (aṇḍy-) "to be in same place with, approach, be in or move into place to seize prey"
Toda : oṇc "ferrule on stick or pounder"
Additional forms : Also Kota aṇḍc- (aṇḍc-) to set (a thing) in place
Notes : Caus. *aṇḍ-Vc- > Toda oṇ-c ('something set on a stick').
Number in DED : 120
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *anṭ-
Meaning : to touch; n. touch, uncleanness, defilement by touch, impurity, pollution
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : aṇṭu
Additional forms : Also aṇṭalu (pl.) crowd, crowds; aṇṭincu to unite, join; aṇṭagu to be in menses, menstruate; aṇḍa nearness, support, assistance, protection, patronage
Number in DED : 120
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *anḍ-
Meaning : bowstring; to attach (bowstring)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : anḍ- "(S) to attach string to bow"
Poya Gadba : anḍal "bowstring"
Number in DED : 120
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-poya,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *anḍ-
Meaning : to join, meet; to stick
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *anḍ-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *anḍ- (caus. *aṭ-)
Notes : The root probably contaminated with *a[n]ṭ- 'to stick', whence the meaning in PPM.
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *anḍ-
Meaning : to stick to, adhere
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : anḍ- (-t-)
Number in DED : 96
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *anḍ- (caus. *aṭ-)
Meaning : to join, unite
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : andali "to aid"
Kuwi (Schulze) : andinai "to join, meet"
Tekriya Kuwi : anḍ- (-it-) "to join, unite with"
Kuwi (Mahanti) : aṇp- "to agree"
Kuwi (Israel) : aṇḍ- (-it-) "to mix (intr.)"
Additional forms : Also Kuwi_F aṇḍatasi partner; andivi aiyali to be friendly; Kuwi_F antū menses; Kuwi_S aṭhinai to add; Kuwi_Isr aṭ- (-h-) to mix (tr.)
Notes : Both Kuwi_F aṇḍatasi and antū are probably borrowings. Kuwi_S andinai is probably misspelled (*anḍinai should be expected; only one such case). The same problem arises with Kuwi_S aṭhinai: retroflex consonants are extremely rare in this dialect, and we should expect (at least, in the transcription), a simple dental. This way, the retroflex here is either misspelled or, if the word itself is a new borrowing or influenced by some other dialect or language, probably obligatory in a relatively new word-formation.
Number in DED : 120
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_t,kuiet-kuwi_mah,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *ā̆nṛ-s-
Meaning : to arrive
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : ā̃ṛsnā "to reach, arrive at, come, overtake, hear about"
Malto : an_ṛse
Additional forms : Also KUR ā̃ṛsrnā to be within reach; ā̃ṛstārnā to be brought up to a certain place; MLT an_ṛstre to cause to arrive, convey.
Number in DED : 120
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : han-inging
Meaning : to copulate (of human beings)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Additional forms : Also aninging id. (KR-23)
Number in DED : 120
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-addition,braet-dednum,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *ŋĭčẹ-q
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): два
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ŋiše-q
Proto-Itelmen: *ńt'i-, *'ǝt'i-q-
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ŋiše-q
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): два
Chukchee: ŋírɛ-q
Koryak: ŋicce-q, ŋǝcce-q, ŋije-
Palan: ŋi/eta-q, ŋite-, ŋic̨e-c̨eŋ 'дважды'
Alutor: ŋita-q
Comments: Геминация рефлекса *-š- в кор. указывает на исходную основу типа TVT - *ŋiš, похоже, что и колебания в рядности второго гласного в пал. связаны с той же причиной.
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *ńt'i-, *'ǝt'i-q-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): второй
Itelmen: nt'i-lŋin
Itelmen meaning: второй
West Itelmen: ńtɨ-ĺnɨn 1, ńtɨ-lɣin 2, ńtɨ-ĺan 3, ńtẹĺ-txi-k-nǝn 4, ['ǝt-utk-tunuk*] 7
West Itelmen meaning: secundus 1, dualis 2, duplex 3, duos annos habens , secundus 4, septem 7
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): drugi 1, podwójny 2, dwojaki 3, dwuletni 4, siedem 5
South Itelmen: ['ita'a-tuk*] 7, *kumx-tuka (dikid) 10
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): septem, decem
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): siedem, dziesięć
Number in Volodin 1976: 188
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVNTV
Meaning : to join, together
Eurasiatic : *anTV
Notes : So far noted only in Nostr.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-notes,

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