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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ā̀ni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: not, negative verb
Russian meaning: не, отрицательный глагол
Turkic: *en
Tungus-Manchu: *ā(n)-
Korean: *àn-
Japanese: *nà-, *-(a)n-, *ìná
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 95-96, 277, Vovin 1997, 3. Basically an Eastern isogloss, with a Western remnant in Chuvash. Cf. also MKor. àčhjǝ́t- (-r-) 'not to like' (cf. TM *ān-či-). Korean has a usual verbal low tone.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *en
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not (prohibitive particle)
Russian meaning: не (запретительная частица)
Chuvash: an
Comments: Егоров 26-27, Федотов 1, 43-45. An isolated Chuv. form, but probably archaic (cf. the external evidence). Cf. also Karakh. (MK Oghuz) 'an exclamation meaning "no"' (see EDT 165) - but it is a hapax, occurs only within a reduplication aŋ, does not regularly correspond to Chuv. an and may be just onomatopoeic.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ā(n)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не, нет
Evenki: āčin
Even: ān, āč
Negidal: āčin
Spoken Manchu: aqu (3017)
Literary Manchu: aqu
Jurchen: a-ĉwi (705)
Ulcha: ana
Orok: ana
Nanai: anā
Oroch: ana
Udighe: anči
Solon: aš́ĩ
Comments: All forms listed must go back to a common negative stem *ān-. See ТМС 1, 41, 60.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *àn-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: not
Russian meaning: не
Modern Korean: an(i)-
Middle Korean: àn(í)-
Comments: Nam 334, KED 1068.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *nà-, *-(a)n-, *ìná
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 not (verbal negation) 2 lacking, non-existent 3 not, negation 4 to negate, dismiss
Russian meaning: 1 не (глагольное отрицание) 2 нет, отсутствующий, несуществующий 3 не, несогласие 4 отрицать, не допускать
Old Japanese: -(a)n- 1, na- 2, ina 3, ina-b- 4
Middle Japanese: -(a)n- 1, na- 2, ìná 3, ìnà-b- 4
Tokyo: ná- 2, -na- 1, ína 3, inam- 4
Kyoto: nà-
Kagoshima: nà-
Nase: -N,né-
Shuri: -N,nḗ-
Hateruma: nḕ-
Yonakuni: -núN
Comments: JLTT 424, 697, 835. *-(a)n- is a verbal negation, probably reflecting the original first vowel of the root *an- (preserved because of the loss of final -i in an auxiliary verbal morpheme). *ìná is a regular reflex of *ā̀ni, while the adjective *nà- 'lacking, non-existent' reveals a secondary loss of initial vowel.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔVnV
Meaning: not, negative particle
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *nē, *ne, *ney
Altaic: *ā̀ni
Uralic: *nV 'not'; Perm. en 'prohib. particle' (if not < Chuv.)
Kartvelian: *nu-
Eskimo-Aleut: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t
References: ND 48 *ʔ[ä]yn̄V 'nothing, there is no' - distinguishing it from 1524 *ǹi 'not' (+ Eg.), which is hardly plausible.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *nē, *ne, *ney
Meaning: part. negat.
Hittite: natta 'nicht', nawi 'noch nicht' (Friedrich 149)
Tokharian: A a(n)-, B e(n)- 'negative prefix' (PT *e(n)-) (Adams 83)
Old Indian: na, nā 'not'; ned 'not, not indeed'; a- `un-'
Avestan: na 'nicht'; naē-čiš 'keiner'; nōit 'durchaus nicht'; a-
Other Iranian: OPers na 'nicht'; nay 'durchaus nicht'; a-
Armenian: an-
Old Greek: ne-; a-, an-
Slavic: *ne; *nē-kъto usw.; *nī, *nī-kъto
Baltic: *nē̆, *nei
Germanic: *nē, *ni, *nai; *un-
Latin: ne-fas, ne-sciō, ne-cesse, ne-uter, ne-que; nē 'nicht; dass nicht', nī, OLat nei 'nicht, gar nicht; si non'; qid-nī; in- (ält. en-)
Other Italic: Osk ne 'non, nē'; ni 'ne', nei 'nicht', neip 'neque'; Osk, Umbr an-; Marruc ni 'nē'
Celtic: OIr ne-ch 'aliquis', Cymr nep 'qiuspiam', OIr nō, no, nū, Cymr neu, OBret nou 'oder'; OIr ni, nī, MCymr ny, NCymr ni, Corn ny, Bret ne 'nicht'; OIr in-, ē-, an-, Cymr, Corn, Bret an-
References: WP II 319 f
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: не
Near etymology: I, отриц. част., употребляется также в качестве приставки в сложениях, укр., блр. не, др.-русск., ст.-слав. не ούκ, болг. не, сербохорв. не, словен. nе, чеш., слвц. nе, польск. nie, в.-луж. nje, н.-луж. ně.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. nè "нет", nе-, лтш. nе "не", nе-, др.-инд. nа, авест. nava "отнюдь не", лат. nе- "не" (в nesciō, nefās, nесеssе), гот., д.-в.-н. ni "не", ирл. nе : nесh "какой-нибудь" наряду с и.-е. *nē: лтш. nê "нет", вед. nā, гот. nē "нет", ирл. nī, лат. nē : nēquidem "даже не", nē-vе "и не", nē-quāmquam "никак не, никоим образом не; вовсе не", греч. νη- (В. Шульце, KZ 29, 262; Kl. Schr. 375), а также и.-е. *n̥: др.-инд. а-, аn-, арм. аn, греч. ἀ-, ἀν-, лат. in-, гот., нов.-в.-нем. un- "не-", др.-ирл. аn-, тохар. аn-, еn-; см. Бругман, Grdr. 2, 3, 977; Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 140; Траутман, ВSW 194 и сл.; Арr. Sprd. 382 и сл.; Торп 288; М.--Э. 2, 704 и сл., 742; Вальде--Гофман 1, 686; 2, 150 и сл. См. также не́кий.
Pages: 3,52
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *nē̆, *nei
Meaning: no, not
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: nè 'nicht', nē̃ 'nicht einmal', niẽ-kas 'niemand'; neĩ 'nicht einmal, auch nicht, und (auch) nicht'
Lettish: ne 'nicht'; nei 'auch nicht, nicht einmal'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *nē, *ni, *nai; *un-
Meaning: no; un-
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: nih; nē 'nein'; ni; nī h.l. 'nicht'; un-
Old Norse: nē; nei 'nein'; ō-
Swedish: o-
Old English: nā 'nie, nicht, nein'; un-
English: no; un-
Old Saxon: ni, ne; nigēn 'kein'; nēn; nio 'nie'
Middle Dutch: on-
Dutch: on-
Middle Low German: nē; un-
Old High German: ni (8.Jh.); nih-ei; nein; nio 'nie'; nī 'nicht'; un-
Middle High German: ne; un-
German: nichi, nein, nie; un-
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1352
Root: nĕ1, , nei
English meaning: negative particle
German meaning: Satznegation der reinen Verneigung
General comments: (ne einzelsprachlich auch Wortnegation geworden)
Derivatives: n̥- Wortnegation; ne-kʷo-s `nicht einer', nei-kʷo-s ds.; ne-kʷe `und nicht', ne-u̯e `oder nicht'
Material: nĕ: ai. ná `nicht', néd (náid) ds., av. ap. na- `nicht', av. nōit̃ (= ai. néd), ai. ná-vā = av.na-va `oder nicht' (vgl. lat. nē-ve, und genauer air. s. unten); ai. naca `und nicht' (= lat. neque usw.);

    über ne- im Arm. (nuaɫ `languissant' aus *ne-val-, usw.) s. Dumézil BSL. 40, 48 f.;

    gr. νε- nur (als Ersatz von n̥-) vor verbalen, dann auch andern Adj. mit dem Anlaut ā̆, ē̆, ō̆, mit denen es kontrahiert ist, z. B. νήκεστος, νηλεής, νώνυμ(ν)ος (danach sekundäres νη- in νήποινος `ungerächt', dor. νά̄ποινος, usw.);

    lat. nĕ- in ne-fās, ne-sciō (ne-sciens, ne-scius), ne-cesse, ne-uter, n'unquam, nusquam, nūllus, nōn (*n'oin[om], vgl. ahd. nhd. nein), ne-que `und nicht, jedenfalls nicht' (= osk. nep, got. nih, air. na[ch] `nicht', ai. na-ca), osk ne `non, nē'; vgl. auch lat. neg[āre, -ōtium] oben S. 418; lat. neu, nē-ve, alt neive, nīve `oder nicht';

    air. ne-ch `aliquis', cymr. nep `quispiam' (= ai. nakis `niemand', aber mit Abstreifung des negativen Sinnes in Sätzen mit wiederholter, aber einander nicht aufhebender Negation; derselbe Vorgang in lit. nė̃kas `irgend etwas', nekurìs `quidam', usw.; ähnlich gelangte ne-u̯e `oder nicht' zur positiven Bed. `oder' in:) air. nō̆, nū̆, cymr. neu, abret. nou `oder', auch verbale Stützpartikeln (für Pronomina infixa und das relative -n-) air. no-, nu-, mcymr. neu- als ursprüngl. formelhaft vorgesetztes `oder nicht?': proklitisches *ne ergab *na (wie z. B. ir. ass- `ex') im Vorton in der Verbindung air. na[ch], mcymr. nac (usw.) `nicht' aus ne-kʷe mit urkelt. Apokope (?) des ausl. -e;

    got. ni, ahd. as. ni, ne, ags. ne `nicht'; aisl. nē̆ in der nur poet. Bed. `non', während in der Bed. `neque' = got. nih (gleichbed. mit ni geworden) aus *ne-kʷe = ahd. nih-ein, as. (mit gramm. Wechsel) nig-ēn `kein' (aber as. nec `und nicht' = lat. neg-, s. oben S. 418); ahd. Konjunktion noh `noch' aus *neh (*ne-kʷe) oder aus ne + ahd. ouch `auch'; ahd. nein, as. nēn `nein' aus *ne + oinom `nicht einer' (s. oben lat. nōn, nūllus); ags. `nie, nicht, nein', engl. `nein' (auch aisl. nei `nein' aus *ni + aiw = as. ahd. nio `nie');

    apr. ni, lit. ne `nicht', nė̃kas, nekurìs (s. oben); aksl. ne `nicht';

    hitt. natta nicht', nāwi `noch nicht'.

    : ai. (ved.) `nicht'; lat. `nicht' in nē-quidem, nēquāquam, nēquīquam, nēquam, gekürzt wahrscheinlich in nĕutiquam (aber né-uter mit altem *nĕ, s. oben), Konj. `daß nicht', osk. ni `ne' (ni-p `nēve'), marruc. ni `nē'; air. nī̆, mcymr. ny, ncymr. ni, corn. ny, bret. ne `nicht' (z. T. mit sekundärer Kürzung); air. `ist nicht' ist das gewöhnliche mit ausgelassener Kopula;

    got. `nein'.

    nei betontes `nicht': av. naē-čiš `keiner', adv. naēčiš verstärkte Negation; lat. , altlat.nei Adv. und Konj. 1. älter `nicht, daß nicht', 2. `si non', quid-nī; osk. nei `nicht' (nei-p `neque'); got. nei (ἅπ.λεγ.) `nicht', aisl. `nein', ahd. emphatisches `nicht'; lit. niẽ-kas `niemand', neĩ `auch nicht, nicht einmal'; aksl. ni `neque', ni-kъto `niemand'; die germ. Formen vielleicht aber = ai. nēd `durchaus nicht, damit nicht', av. nōit, ap. nay aus idg. *ne id `das nicht'; vielleicht ist idg. nei aus *ne + ī (vgl. οὑτοσ-ί:) zu deuten.

    n̥- Verneinungspartikel als erstes Glied: ai. av. ap. a-, vor Vokalen (auch i̯, u̯) an-; gr.ἀ-, vor Vokal ἀν-; lat. in-, ältest en- (die vorkonsonantische Form); osk. umbr. an-; air. in- (vor Med.), ē- (vor Tenuis), an- (vor Vokal), cymr. corn. bret. an-; got. ahd. as. un-, aisl. ō-, ū-; im Bsl. durchaus durch ne- verdrängt; über ksl. ne-ję-věrъ `ungläubig', ne-ję-sytь `unersättlich = Pelikan' s. Berneker 429; toch. AB a(n)-, am-, e(n)-, em-, on-; durch mehrereSprachen durchgehende Entsprechungen sind z. B.: ai. amŕ̥ta-, ἄμβροτος, immortālis; ai. ájñāta-, ἄγνωτος, arm. ancanaut`, ignōtus, air. ingnad, got. unkunþs; ai. anudrá-, ἄνυδρος, usw.

References: WP. II 319 f., WH. II 150 f., 152, 165 f., Trautmann 194 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 431 f., 2, 590 ff.
Pages: 756-758
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 682
Proto: *nV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: not
German meaning: nicht
Udmurt (Votyak): no-mi̮rno 'nichts', nokińno 'kein, niemand' (G)
Komi (Zyrian): ńi-ne̮m 'nichts' (Peč.)
Khanty (Ostyak): nemǝsȧ (O) 'nichts', nem (χŏjat) (Kaz.) 'niemand'
Mansi (Vogul): nēmat (So.) 'keinerlei', nēm (χåtpä) (N) 'niemand'
Hungarian: në (mit Imp.) 'nicht', nëm 'nein, nicht, kein'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *nu-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: не (запретительное)
English meaning: not (prohibitive)
Georgian: nu
Megrel: nu; numu, nǝmǝ
Svan: no-, nu-; nōma, nōm
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 148-149, EWK 267. См. ОСНЯ 1, 17 (: урал. *ne, ПИЕ *ne; добавим также алт. *ana).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: negat. affix: to stop doing, not (imperat.)
Russian meaning: отрицание: переставать, не (императив)
Proto-Yupik: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t-
Proto-Inupik: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t
Comments: Cf. *-(ŋ)i-.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 417, 418
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: negat. affix: to stop doing 1, not (imperat.) 2
Russian Meaning: отрицание: переставать 1, не (императив) 2
Sirenik: -nǝχtǝ- 2
Chaplino: +naniʁ- 1, nʁitǝ- 2
Naukan: +naniʁ- 1, -nʁitǝ- 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: -nʁiʁ- 1
Chugach (AAY): -nnǝtǝ- 2
Koniag (AAY): -nnitǝ- 2
Central Alaskan Yupik: -nʁiʁ-, +nanʁiʁ- 1, nʁitǝ- 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 416, 417
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chug,yupet-koni,yupet-cay,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *-ǝnʁi-ʁ-, *-ǝnʁi-t
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: negat. affix: to stop doing 1, not (imperat.) 2
Russian meaning: отрицание: переставать 1, не (императив) 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: -ʁnit-, -ŋit- 2
North Alaskan Inupik: -nʁiq- 1
NAI Dialects: Mal -nʁit- 2, Nu -ŋŋit- 2, B -ŋit- 2
Western Canadian Inupik: -nʁiq- 1, -ŋŋit- 2
Eastern Canadian Inupik: -ŋŋi(t)- 2
Greenlandic Inupik: -ŋŋit- 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 417
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVNV
Meaning : not
Eurasiatic : *ʔVnV
Afroasiatic : Sem. *ʔayin 'non-existence; not'; Eg. ỉn 'negative adverb'; Cush. *nV
Austric : MY *n-
Reference : ND 48.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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