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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ằra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back, behind
Russian meaning: спина, задняя сторона
Turkic: *ărka
Mongolian: *aru
Tungus-Manchu: *arka-
Japanese: *àtuà
Comments: EAS 139, KW 12, Poppe 78, Колесникова 1972а, 84-87, Дыбо 305, Лексика 268, TMN 2, 29-30, Doerfer MT 46. PT *arka and PTM *arka go back to a dative-locative formation *ara-k`a.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ărka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back
Russian meaning: спина, задняя сторона
Old Turkic: arqa (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: arqa (MK, KB)
Turkish: arka
Tatar: arqa
Middle Turkic: arqa (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ɔrqa
Uighur: a(r)qa
Sary-Yughur: arqa, harqa
Azerbaidzhan: arxa
Turkmen: arqa
Khakassian: arɣa
Shor: arɣa
Oyrat: arqa
Halaj: arqа (arxa < Az.)
Chuvash: orɣa-lъx 'saddle strips'
Yakut: arɣā, arɣa-s
Dolgan: arga-lā- 'to turn one's back towards smb.'
Tuva: a'rɣa 'mountain forest'
Kirghiz: arqa
Kazakh: arqa
Noghai: arqa
Bashkir: arqa
Balkar: arqa
Gagauz: arqa
Karaim: arqa, arxa
Karakalpak: arqa
Salar: arχa, arGa (ССЯ 292, 293)
Kumyk: arqa 1
Comments: EDT 200-201, 215, VEWT 26-27, ЭСТЯ 1, 174-175, 179-180, Лексика 267-268, Федотов 2, 288, Stachowski 36.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *aru
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back, behind, North
Russian meaning: спина, задняя сторона, север
Written Mongolian: aru (L 54), aru-ki
Middle Mongolian: aru (HY 11, SH 9), aradan 'behind', ārudur 'to the back' (MA 104, 106)
Khalkha: ar
Buriat: ara
Kalmuck: arǝ, ārǝ, arkǝ
Ordos: aru 'back, east'
Dagur: ar (Тод. Даг. 121), arkǝn (MGCD)
Shary-Yoghur: ār
Comments: KW 12, 14, 21, MGCD 114.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *arka-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back
Russian meaning: спина
Evenki: arkan
Even: arqъ̣n
Negidal: ajkan
Orok: atta(n)
Oroch: akka(n)
Udighe: aka(n)
Solon: arkã
Comments: ТМС 1, 51.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ork,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *àtuà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: behind, trace
Russian meaning: задняя сторона, след
Old Japanese: atwo
Middle Japanese: àtó
Tokyo: áto
Kyoto: àtó
Kagoshima: ató
Comments: JLTT 387.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔarV
Meaning: back
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ors- <PIH *o-> Or *org'h-i- <PIH *o-> 2862
Altaic: *ằra
Dravidian: SDr *ar- 'waist, loins'
Eskimo-Aleut: *aqru ( < *ar-qu?)
References: ND 145 *ʡar.(w)u.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ors- <PIH *o->
Meaning: buttock, anus
Hittite: arra- c. 'After, Gesäss' (Tischler 51-52)
Armenian: orr, pl. orrkh (i-St.) `Hinterer'
Old Greek: órro-s m. `Hinterer, After; Ende des os sacrum'
Germanic: *árs-a- m.
Celtic: OIr. err f. 'Schwanz, Ende'
Russ. meaning: ягодица, anus
References: WP I 138
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *ársa-z
Meaning: buttocks, arse
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: ars, ras-s m. `Arsch, After''
Norwegian: rass
Old Swedish: ars
Danish: ars
Old English: ears (ärs), -es m. `breech, buttocks, hind part'
English: arse
Old Frisian: ers
Old Saxon: ars
Middle Dutch: ers, aers , eers, ars
Dutch: aars m., naars m.
Middle Low German: ārs, ēres
Old High German: ars (um 1000)
Middle High German: ars st. m. 'arsch'
German: Arsch m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 516
Root: ers- : orsos
English meaning: behind; tail
German meaning: `Hinterer, Schwanz'
Material: Arm. oṙ `Hinterer' (meist Pl. oṙ-k`, i-St.);

    gr. ὄρρος m. `Hinterer' (dazu οὐρά: f. `Schweif' aus *orsi̯ā) =

    ahd. ars, ags. ears m., aisl. ars, rass `Arsch' =

    hitt. a-ar-ra-áš (arras), Dat. ar-ri-iš-ši (arrisi); das -si enklit. Pronomen;

    e-stufig air. err (*ersā) f. `Schwanz, Ende' (auch des Streitwagens), davon eirr `Wagenkämpfer' (*ers-et-s), Gen. erred;

   

References: WP. I 138, Couvreur H̯ 98, Pedersen KG. II 101.
See also: wird vielfach als `Erhebung, vorstehender Körperteil' zu er-3 (oben S. 326) gestellt.
Pages: 340
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-seealso,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *aqru
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: stern, back part
Russian meaning: корма, задняя часть
Proto-Yupik: *aqru
Proto-Inupik: *aqu
Comments: The root is not related to *aqu[v]i- (-t-) 'to drive, to travel' despite CED; however, occasional contaminations with that homophonous stem are possible in modern languages.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 40
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *áqru
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: stern
Russian Meaning: корма
Sirenik: aqica
Naukan: áquq
Chugach (AAY): PWS aqu
Chugach (Birket-Smith): ạqu̮a 3sg. 'baidar stern'
Central Alaskan Yupik: aqutǝ- 'to be last in race'
Norton Sound (Peripheral): aqu
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 40
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-nauk,yupet-chug,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nrts,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *ạqų
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: stern 1, back or lower part 2, end 3
Russian meaning: корма 1, задняя или нижняя часть 2, конец 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: aʁu 1
SPI Dialects: Imaq áʁu, W aʁoa 3sg. 3
North Alaskan Inupik: aqu 2, 1, 'time after', aqulliq (ʁ) 'last'
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl aqoa* 3sg. 3
Western Canadian Inupik: aqu 2
WCI Dialects: M aqoa* 3sg. 3
Eastern Canadian Inupik: aqu 2, 1
Greenlandic Inupik: aqu 1, aqo* 3 [Jen.]
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 40
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVRV
Meaning : back
Eurasiatic : *ʔarV
Afroasiatic : *ʔa/ir(r)aw- ~ *wVraʔ/y-
Reference : ND 145.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔa/ir(r)aw- ~ *wVraʔ/y-
Meaning: back, backbone
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔVrāw- ~ *wVrāʔ- 'back'
Berber: *(H)Vr(r)aw ~ *wVry 'back' 1, 'shoulder' 2
Western Chadic: *wiyar- 'neck' ~ *ʔari 'back'
East Chadic: *ʔar- 'back' ~ *ʔa-wir- 'neck'
Beḍauye (Beja): *ʔarVr 'pelvis'
Saho-Afar: *ʔiraw 'back, back side'
Low East Cushitic: *wi(H)ir-t- 'spine, mid-back'
Notes: Cf. Eg ỉꜣ.t (<*yiʔ or *ʔir-) 'back' in 309. Cf. HSED, 1159 *har- 'back', where Tsagu is compared to E. Chad.: Mubi har, Birgit ʔara (and Akk. e/arûtu); and [Stolb. 1996 31], where E. Chad. *[h]ar- 'back' (square brackets mean that the reconstruction is doubtful [ibid. 10]) is compared to W. Chad. *-Har- 'back', with an unspecified laryngeal.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-sho,afaset-lec,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1998
Proto-Semitic: *ʔVrāw- ~ *wVrāʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: back
Akkadian: erûtu (arûtu) 'back' OB, SB [CAD e 327]; SB according to [AHw 248]
Arabic: warāʔ- 'partie postérieure, de derrière' [BK 2 1527]. Cf. warāniyat- 'cul, derrière' [ibid. 1525]; cf. also warr-, warr-at- 'os de la hanche' [ibid. 1516]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔurāʔu 'waist' [LGz 36] (<*ʔurāw-?)
Notes: Only AKK, ARB and GEZ. To be distinguished from *ʔir-at- 'chest, breast', No. ; cf. AFRASIAN
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *(H)Vr(r)aw ~ *wVry
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: back 1, shoulder 2
Siwa: ǝrrau 1 L 228
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): a-rûri, pl. i-rûriaw-ǝn 1 F 160 (<*rawraw, redupl.)
Zenaga: ọ̄ʔri 2 'épaule, creux de l'épaule' N 439
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): iri, pl. iraw-ǝn 1, 2 'dos; cou; épaule' D 698
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-siw,brbet-ahg,brbet-zng,brbet-qbl,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *wiyar- 1 ~ *ʔari 2
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'neck' 1, 'back' 2
Hausa: wúyàà 1
Miya: wir 1
Cagu: āri 2 Sk 11
Buli: iyarr 1
Kulere: wur 1
Ngizim: wùrá 1
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-miy,wchet-cag,wchet-bul,wchet-klr,wchet-ngz,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔar- 1 ~ *ʔa-wir- 2
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'back' 1, 'neck' 2
Dangla: āro 1
Migama: úrè 2
Jegu: were 2
Mubi: wíírì 2
Birgit: ʔara 1
Mokilko: ʔóré 2
Notes: Cf. Mubi har id. (h- <*ʔ-?)
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-jeg,echet-mub,echet-brg,echet-mkk,echet-notes,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: arór
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: Schoss
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *ʔiraw
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: Rückseite, Rücken
Saho: irō
Afar (Danakil): irō
Notes: Rein Af 1814
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-saho,shoet-afar,shoet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *wi(H)ir-t-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: spine, mid-back
Oromo (Galla): wiirtuu Gr 423, 428
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-oro,

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