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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ălpa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms
Russian meaning: слабый, больной; бесправный, наемник
Turkic: *ălp-
Mongolian: *alba-n
Tungus-Manchu: *alba-
Korean: *àrphằ-
Japanese: *apar-
Comments: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ălp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 difficult, hard 2 warrior 3 hero 4 brave 5 giant 6 landlord
Russian meaning: 1 трудный 2 воин 3 герой 4 храбрый 5 великан 6 помещик, землевладелец
Old Turkic: alp 1, 2, 4 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.); alp-a-ɣut 2 (OUygh.).
Karakhanid: alp 2, 4 (MK, KB, Tefs., IM); alpaɣut 2 (MK)
Turkish: alp 3, 4
Tatar: alɨp 3, 5, alpawɨt 2
Middle Turkic: alp 2, 3 (Sngl.)
Uzbek: alp 3
Uighur: alpawut 2
Khakassian: alɨp 4, albɨx- 'to act as a meddler'
Shor: alɨp 4
Oyrat: alɨp 4
Chuvash: olъp 5, olbut 2
Yakut: alɨp 'witchcraft; part of some names of spirits'
Tuva: albɨq- 'to pant, stifle', albā- 'to lapse into oblivion'
Kirghiz: alp 3, 4, 5, albūt 'hot-tempered'
Kazakh: alɨp 5, albɨt, albɨrt 'hot-tempered'
Bashkir: alpawɨt 2, alpamɨša 5 (from Alp Amɨša, a folklore name, = Tat.)
Karaim: alp 'chief', alpawut 'gentry man'
Karakalpak: alp 3, 5, albɨra- 'be exhausted, embarassed'
Comments: EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, ЭСТЯ I 139, Федотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albaɣut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albatɨ, Kirgh. albatɨ 'tax-payers, people'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *alba-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 compulsion, forcing 2 to force 3 service, duty
Russian meaning: 1 насилие, принуждение 2 принуждать 3 служба, обязанность
Written Mongolian: alba(n) 1, 3 (L 27)
Middle Mongolian: alban 3 (HYt)
Khalkha: alba 3, alba-da- 2
Buriat: alba(n) 3, alba-da- 2
Kalmuck: alwǝ, alwṇ 1, 3
Ordos: alba 3, alba-da- 2, to take a tribute
Dagur: alba 3 (Тод. Даг. 119), alebe 3 (MD 112)
Monguor: arwan 3 (SM 15), alwan (MGCD)
Comments: KW 9, MGCD 101. Mong. > Shor alban etc. (VEWT 16, Щербак 1997, 199); > Man. alban etc. (Doerfer MT 116, Rozycki 15), Russ. dial. albán, Oyr. alman > Russ. Siber. almán (Аникин 81, 83).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *alba-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be unable 2 lazy
Russian meaning: 1 не мочь 2 ленивый
Evenki: alba- 1
Even: albъ̣- 1
Negidal: alba- 1
Orok: alba- 1
Nanai: albaqto 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 30.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *àrphằ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be ill
Russian meaning: болеть
Modern Korean: aphɨ-
Middle Korean: àrphằ-
Comments: Nam 347, KED 1078.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *apar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to pity
Russian meaning: жалеть, сострадать
Old Japanese: apare-m-
Middle Japanese: áfáre-b-, afare-m-
Tokyo: awaré-m-
Kyoto: áwáré-m-
Kagoshima: àwàrè-m-
Comments: JLTT 388, 679. The accent situation is not quite clear: modern dialects rather uniformly point to low tone (also in the noun *apara-i 'sympathy, pity' > Tokyo áware, Kyoto áwàrè, Kagoshima awaré); but the only accentuation attested in RJ is ápáre-b-.
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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *HalpV
Meaning: weak
Indo-European: *alp-
Altaic: *ălpa
Kartvelian: *ɣalp-
References: МССНЯ 365, ОСНЯ 1, 239-240; ND 131b *[ʕ]aLpV 'weak, exhausted' (IE+TM), 713 *G[o]Lpa 'weak, small' (IE+Kartv. + dub. Mong.).
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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *alp- <PIH *a->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: weak
Hittite: alpanta- (alpant-) 'ill, weak'
Old Indian: álpa-, alpaka- `small, minute, trifling'
Baltic: *al̃p- vb., *al̃p-na- adj., *al̃p-ā̂ f., *alp-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *alb-a- m., *alb-i- c.
Russ. meaning: слабый
References: WP I 92
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *al̃p- vb., *al̃p-na- adj., *al̃p-ā̂ f., *el̂p-ā̂ f. (1), *al̂p-iā̃ f. (1)
Meaning: weak, insensible
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: al̃pti `das Bewusstsein verlieren, ohnmächtig werden'; al̃pna- `schwach'
Lettish: àlpa2 'das Luftschöpfen', ęl̃pa (Wolm. usw.), el̃pe (U.), elpis (U., Blieden) 'der Atem, das Luftschöpfen, der Luftzug; die Beihilfe, das Viehfutter, die Wurze, die Zutaten zur Speise'
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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *alba-z, *albi-z
Meaning: elf
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: alf-r m. `Albe, Elf'
Norwegian: alv
Old Swedish: älf `Albe, Elf'
Old Danish: elv `Albe, Elf'
Old English: älf, -es m., ilf, -e f. `elf'
English: elf
Old Saxon: alf
Middle Dutch: alf m. `boze geest, die de mensen zoekt te bedriegen'
Dutch: alf m.
Middle Low German: alf `Mare, Alp'
Old High German: alb (11.Jh.)
Middle High German: alp (-b-) st. m., n. 'gespenstisches wesen, gehilfe des teufels; alp, das alpdrücken'; md. alf 'tor, narr'
German: Alb m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-odan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 66
Root: alp-
English meaning: small, weak
German meaning: `klein, schwach' ?
Material: Ai. álpa-, alpaka- `klein, gering' (alpēna, alpāt `leicht, schnell'); schwer in der Bedeutung zu vereinen mit lit. alpstù, alpaũ, al̃pti `ohnmächtig werden', alpùs `schwach', lett. el̃pe `Luftschöpfen, Atemzug', alpà `Mal, Zeitpunkt'.

    Anreihung auch von hom. ἀλαπαδνός (bei Aeschylos λαπαδνός) `schwach', ἀλαπάζω `leere aus, erschöpfe', att. λαπάζω `plündere', λαπάττω `leere (den Leib)aus' ist bedenklich wegen ihrer zweisilbigen Wzf. gegenüber der leichten der ai. und lit. Worte; auch stehen sie, sowie die ihnen, angereihten λαπαρός `schmächtig, dünn, offenen Leib habend', λαπάρα `Flanke, Dünnung des Leibes an der Hüfte', λάπαθος `Aushöhlung, Grube', λάπαθος `Sauerampfer' als `βοτάνη κενωτική' in der Bedeutungsfärbung (`ausleeren, eingefallen') doch erheblich ab. Ganz fragwürdig auch alb. (Jokl SBAk. Wien 168, I 48) laps `bin müde, überdrüssig'.

    Ob hierher hett. al-pa-an-da- (alpant-) `krank, schwach'?

References: WP. I 92, Couvreur Ḫ 106 f., WH. I 786, Hirt Idg. Gr. II, 158.
Pages: 33
PIE database: PIE database
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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ɣalp-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: слабый
English meaning: weak
Georgian: Gur. ɣalp-
Notes and references: В ОСНЯ 1, 240 основа сравнивается с ПИЕ *(H)alp- 'слабый', алт. *alpa 'больной, немощный'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-notes,

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