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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ăĺi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to know; to listen, hear
Russian meaning: знать; слушать, слышать
Turkic: *ẹĺit-
Mongolian: *al-dar
Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Korean: *ār-
Comments: EAS 140, 154, SKE 7 (Mong.-Kor.-Tung.), АПиПЯЯ 282; closed *ẹ in PT may be explained by a secondary narrowing in a disyllable *eĺ-it- > *ẹĺ-it- (cf. *er-kek > *ẹr-kek etc.).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ẹĺit-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hear
Russian meaning: слышать
Old Turkic: ešid- (Orkh.), ešit- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ešit- (MK, KB)
Turkish: išit-
Tatar: išet-; dial. (Mishar) iš- 'hear' (ТТДС 156), (Bar.) išɛn- 'listen' (ЯБТ 140)
Middle Turkic: ešit- (Abush. 63)
Uzbek: ešit-
Uighur: ešet- (Kashg., УНС 109)
Azerbaidzhan: ešit-, pass. ešidil-
Turkmen: ešit-, pass. ešidil-
Khakassian: is- / ist-
Halaj: išüt-
Chuvash: ilt-
Yakut: ihit-, pass. ihilin-
Dolgan: ihit-, pass. ihilin-
Kirghiz: ešit-
Kazakh: est-
Noghai: esit-
Bashkir: išet-
Balkar: ešt-
Gagauz: išit-
Karaim: šit-
Karakalpak: esit-
Salar: išti-
Kumyk: ešit-
Comments: VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 318-319, Егоров 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Küär. äš-, Kach. eš- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *eĺ- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zajączkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. aŋla- 'to hear' < 'mind'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *al-dar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fame, honour
Russian meaning: слава, почет
Written Mongolian: aldar (L 30)
Middle Mongolian: aldar (SH)
Khalkha: aldar
Buriat: aldar
Kalmuck: aldṛ
Ordos: aldar
Dagur: aldar,aldūr (Тод. Даг. 120); aldartī, aligiǝn (MGCD), aledere 'news' (MD)
Comments: KW 6, MGCD 102.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ala-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to tell 2 (caus.) to teach, explain 3 to offer as sacrifice 4 to be responsible 5 royal decree
Russian meaning: 1 учить, объяснять 2 рассказывать 3 приносить в жертву 4 нести ответственность 5 высочайшее повеление
Evenki: alawū- 2
Negidal: ala-čị- 3
Spoken Manchu: alǝ- 'to tell, to inform' (1346)
Literary Manchu: ala- 1
Jurchen: alawa-gi (576) 5
Ulcha: alaụ- 2, 4
Orok: alaụ- 2
Nanai: alō-sị- 2
Oroch: alụ- 1, alaw- 2
Udighe: alau- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 28. Cf. also Man. algi- 'to be glorified', algin 'fame' - probably belonging here and not (despite Doerfer MT 239) borrowed from Turk. *ạlkɨ- (a quite different root, see *p`i̯ŏlge); TM *al-du 'news, rumours, information' (ТМС 1, 31).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *ār-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to know
Russian meaning: знать
Modern Korean: āl-
Middle Korean: ār-
Comments: Nam 346, KED 1089.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *alV
Meaning: to listen, hear
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ăĺi
Uralic: *älwä
Dravidian: *āl- (Kan.-Tel.) (DEDR 383); *ar_- 'know, understand'; Kui-Kuwi *ēḷ- 'mind, wisdom'
Eskimo-Aleut: *ǝli-(ma-)
References: ND 128 *ʡäḷu 'know'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1210
Proto: *älwä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: understanding, reason; to understand
German meaning: Verstand, Vernunft; verstehen, begreifen
Finnish: äly; älyä- 'to understand'
Saam (Lapp): iel'vē-, äl'vē- 'to observe, to discover' (L)
Komi (Zyrian): al, av 'mind, reason', avja 'höflich, klug', alji-, avji- (P) 'gelingen haben, gut fortkommen'
K. Redei's notes: Komi > Khanty alamǝ-, alemǝ- 'успеть', Mansi ālim- 'Zeit haben'. Fin. -y is a derivative suffixe; Fin. *-lvü > -ly.
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-kom,uralet-redei,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *āl-
Meaning : to hear, listen
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *āl-aj-
Proto-Telugu : *āl-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *āl-aj-
Meaning : to listen
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : ālay(i)su
Kannada meaning : to listen, attend to, mind
Kannada derivates : ālisu id., be heard, make oneself to be heard, cry aloud
Tulu : ālaisuni
Tulu meaning : to listen to, hear attentively
Number in DED : 0383
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *āl-
Meaning : to hear, listen or attend to, give ear to
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : ālakincu
Dialectal forms (1) : ālincu
Number in DED : 383
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *ǝli-(ma-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to know, to have a feeling
Russian meaning: знать, чувствовать
Proto-Yupik: *ǝli-ma-, *ǝli-ɣ-(ikǝ-)
Proto-Inupik: *ǝli-ma-
Comments: Cf. the transitive derivative *ǝli-t- (-ima-) 'to learn, to know, to recognize'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 105
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *ǝli-ma-, *ǝli-ɣ-(ikǝ-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to know 1, sensitive, understanding 2, to cognize, to take in mind 3
Russian Meaning: знать 1, чуткий 2, узнавать, признавать, замечать 3
Sirenik: ǝsǝ́mǝkáx part. 1, ǝ́sǝ́mǝlǝ́χpiɣáχ 'teached by sbd.', liɣíkǝtáɫǝx 2, liɣíkinǝ́qǝsqǝ̄́χtǝʁá 'to repeat'
Chaplino: līɣikáqā 3, līɣīqā (līɣīɫǝq (χǝt) dvn.) 'to feel', cf. lǝɣrá (ǝt) 'inquisitive'
Naukan: ilíj_utāquq 'to get to know'
Central Alaskan Yupik: ǝlima- 'to be knowledgeable'
PAME: *ili-k-
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 105
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-cay,yupet-pame,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *ǝli-ma-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: suspicious, apprehensive 1, to suspect 2
Russian meaning: подозрительный, сообразительный 1, подозревать 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: ilima(zuk)- 1, 2
North Alaskan Inupik: iĺima(suk)- 1, iĺimaɣɨ- 2
Eastern Canadian Inupik: ilima(suk)- 1, 'on the look out'
Greenlandic Inupik: ilimasuɣ- 'to expect sth.', ilimaɣi- 'to expect'
GRI Dialects: NG ilumahuk-, ilumaɣi- 'to expect (sth. bad)'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 105
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-nai,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVLV
Meaning : to listen, hear
Eurasiatic : *alV
Sino-Caucasian : *=eƛú
Amerind (misc.) : *ali 'ear' (R 200); *al 'know; think' (R 410) [+ A]; *ali 'think' (R 744)
Reference : Dolg. ND 128 compares Nostr. and Ar., Ug. ʕlm 'know'.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=eƛú
Meaning: to hear
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=eƛu
Burushaski: *-́jal-
Comments and references : DCE 33.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=eƛu
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hear
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔanƛV-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeʎɨ- (~-ʎ:-)
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʎʷǝ-
Notes: Correspondences are regular. There may have been a vowel variation (or Ablaut) *-eƛu / *-uƛV - to account for the PA form *ʔan-ƛV- < *han-uƛV- (although actually the -u-vowel is reflected only in Cham., and the forms of other languages may reflect a protoform with other vowels).

    A continuation of the same stem (cf. its PA shape *ʔan-ƛV-), with a further addition of an expressive preverb *č̣-, may be PTsKh *č̣aʎ- (~-L-) > Tsez. č̣aʎ-, Gin. c̣aʎ- 'to hear, understand'.

    See Абдоков 1983, 180.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔanƛV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hear
Andian language: anʎi- 1
Akhvakh: ãƛu-nu- 1
Chamalal: woʎa- 1
Tindi: anʎ- 1
Karata: anʎ- 1
Botlikh: ãh- 1
Bagvalal: ãh- 1
Godoberi: anʎ- 1
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Anch. ãh-, Akhv. Tseg., Tlan. ãʎ-, Bagv. Tlond. alhã-; Cham. Gig. ruʎ- (Cham. Gig. r-, Gakv. w- < *r- is an historical prefix). The Cham. form suggests that the original root was *-uƛ- (with class prefixation), and all other Andian languages reflect actually a compound *ʔan-uƛ-, where the first component is most probably a distorted PA *han- 'ear' (with a weakened initial laryngeal) q.v. Chamalal, however, had also possessed the stem *ʔanƛV- > anʎ-, as seen from the nominal derivate ãʎ, Gig. anʎi 'word, speech' ("smth. heard").
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeʎɨ- (~-ʎ:-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to hear 2 to keep silence
Tabasaran: je=x- 1
Rutul: g-i=xe- 2
Tsakhur: q:-a=xe- 1
Kryz: ix- 1
Budukh: ix- 1
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ʎʷǝ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hear
Adyghe: zaxa-xǝ-n
Kabardian: zaxa-xǝ-n
Comments: PAK *xǝ- (used only with preverbs). The PWC reconstruction is only tentative without AA and Ub. parallels (since PAK *x may go back to *ʎʷ, *ƛ́w, *ʎ́ʷ, *x(ʷ), *x́ʷ).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-jal-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: hear
Yasin: d-́jal-
Hunza: d-́jal-
Nagar: d-́jal-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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