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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ale
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: below, lower
Russian meaning: низ, опускать
Turkic: *ăl
Korean: *àrái
Japanese: *ǝ̀rǝ́-
Comments: SKE 6, EAS 106, Martin 230. The tone correspondence between Kor. and Jpn. is irregular.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ăl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lower
Russian meaning: 1 низ, нижняя сторона 2 нижний
Old Turkic: altɨn 2 (Yen. ПМК 90, OUygh.)
Karakhanid: altɨn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)
Turkish: alt 1
Tatar: alt 1 (dial., ЯБТ 126)
Sary-Yughur: altɨ 1 (ЯЖУ 14)
Azerbaidzhan: alt 1
Khakassian: altɨ 1
Shor: altɨ 1
Oyrat: ald 1, altɨɣɨ 2; altɨ 1 {(Баск. Туба)}
Halaj: a[:]lt 1
Chuvash: old(ъ) 'gusset'
Yakut: alɨn 1
Dolgan: alɨn 1
Tuva: a'ldɨ 1
Tofalar: aldɨn 'в низовье реки' (Рас. ФиЛ 153)
Kirghiz: ald(ɨ) 1
Gagauz: alt 1
Karaim: alt 1 (K)
Comments: VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *āl 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but altɨ 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk altɨ 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-tɨ- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *ăl is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alaša 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -čak may be PT *aĺ(č)ak (Karakh. ašaq, Turkm. ašāq etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *āĺ- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-čak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alčaq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alčak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alčak 'mean, vile', alča- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alɨg, see under *ā̀le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alčaq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alčaq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -čak from the root al- (which is why -lč- did not yield -š- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alča-gar, alča-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alčaji- 'to spread legs apart'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *àrái
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: below, lower side
Russian meaning: низ, нижняя сторона
Modern Korean: arä
Middle Korean: àrái
Comments: Nam 336, KED 1069.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ǝ̀rǝ́-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to lower, go down
Russian meaning: опускаться
Old Japanese: oru-
Middle Japanese: òru-
Tokyo: orí-
Kyoto: òrì-
Kagoshima: òrì-
Comments: JLTT 742. For final *-ǝ- cf. the causative PJ *ǝ̀rǝ́-s-, OJ oros- 'to lower, drop'.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *HalV
Meaning: below
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ʔĕlʌ- ?
Altaic: *ale
Uralic: *ala (cf. also *lE)
Dravidian: *el- (?)
References: МССНЯ 351; ND 1859 *qalV 'bottom, down' (+Sem.). Cf. PEC *ƛ̣_i 'below, down'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ela- <PIH *H->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to move, to drive
Hittite: halai- (II) 'in Bewegung setzen' (nach unten?) (Tischler 126); halija- (I) 'niederknien, niederfallen', caus. halinu- (Tischler 130)
Old Indian: iyarti `to go, move', med. ī́rte `to go, move, rise, go away, retire'
Avestan: gath. īratū `er soll sich erheben'
Armenian: elanem `komme heraus, steige hinauf', eɫanim `werde'
Old Greek: iállō, aor. iǟ́lai̯ `absenden, ausstrecken'; *élami (arg. pot-elátō, ko. elántō), eláō, eláu̯nō, aor. elás(s)ai̯, pf, med. elǟ́laka, aor. pass. ela(s)thē̂nai̯ `treiben, stossen, schmieden', élasi-s `Zug, Heerzug, Ritt, Vertreibund usw.', ? élatro-n `flacher Kuchen', elatḗr `Treiber, Wagenlenker', `flacher Kuchen', elátǟ-s `Treiber', elató- `geschmeidig, getrieben'
Germanic: *al-t-ia- vb.
Russ. meaning: двигать, гнать
References: WP I 155 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *altian- vb.
Meaning: drive, press
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: elta wk. `treiben, jagen; kneten'
Norwegian: elta
Swedish: älta
Danish: älte
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 467
Root: el-6, elǝ- : lā-; el-eu-(dh-)
English meaning: to drive; to move, go
German meaning: `treiben, in Bewegung setzen; sich bewegen, gehen'
Material: Arm. eɫanim `ich werde', Aor. 1. Sg. eɫē (*eɫei), 2. Sg. eɫer, 3. Sg. eɫeu-, elanem `ich steige hinauf, komme heraus', 3. Sg. Aor. el; dazu eluzi `j'ai fait monter' (*el-ou-ghe-), danach eluzanem `je fais sortir';

    gr. ἐλα- im Imper. koisch ἐλάτω, Fut. ἐλα̃ντι (*ἐλαοντι), Aor. ἐλάσαντες und poet. ἐλάω `treibe'; suppletiv zu ἄγω (s. unten kelt. el-), Fut. att. ἐλω̃, Aor. ἤλασα; meist ἐλαύνω `treibe, fahre' (von einem Nomen *ἐλα-υν-ος, Brugmann Grundriß II, 1, 321);

    mit dh-Erweiterung `kommen': Aor. ἦλθον (aus ἤλυθον), daraus dor. usw. ἦνθον; Perf. hom. εἰλήλουθα, att. ἐλήλυθα; Fut. ion. ἐλεύσομαι; über Perf. ἐλήλυμεν (*elu-), Adjekt. προσ-ήλυτος `einer, der kommt', ἔπηλυς, -υδος ds., s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 7042, 7697;

    man stellt noch hierher ἰάλλω `schicke, werfe' (*i-el-i̯ō), Aor. hom. ἴηλα, dor. ἴηλα (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 648, 717); aber ai. íyarti `er erregt' gehört eher zu er-1;

    air. luid `ging' (*ludh-e), 3. Pl. lotar (*ludh-ont-r̥); wie im Gr. wird im Kelt. aĝ- `treiben' durch el- suppliert, womit aber zum Teil auch die Wurzel pel- `pellō' (s. dort) zusammengefallen ist, so gewiß im air. Fut. eblaid `wird treiben' (aus *pi-plā-s-e-ti), Fut. sek. di-eblad `würde entreißen' ; el- erscheint im Brit. nur im Konjunktiv: Präs. 1. Sg. mcymr. el(h)wyf, 3. Sg.el, Corn. 1. Sg. yllyf, 3. Sg. ello, mbr. 3. Sg. me a y-el `ich werde gehen' (das у ist hiatustilgend; lh und ll gehen auf l + intervok. s zurück); vielleicht hierher die gall. FlN Elaver > Elaris > frz. Allier (*еlǝ-u̯er- : *elǝ-u̯en-, s. oben ἐλαύνω) und Elantia > nhd. Elz;

    vielleicht dazu als no-Partizip (??) ags. lane, -u f. `Gasse, Weg', anord. lǫn `Häuserreihe', usw. Über anord. elta `drücken, verfolgen, forttreiben' (*alatjan?) s. Falk-Тогp m. Nachtr.

References: WP. I 155 f., Meillet BSL. 26, 6 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 213, 507, 5214, 681 f.
Pages: 306-307
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 7
Proto: *ala
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: space below smth., below
German meaning: Raum unter etw., Unter-, das Untere
Finnish: ala 'Platz, Gebiet, Bereich', alla (postp.) 'unter, unterhalb'
Estonian: ala 'Unterraum; Grund, Ursprung'. all (postp.) 'unten, unter, unterhalb'
Saam (Lapp): vuolle ~ vuollĕ -l- 'down; (in comp.) 'space or part under smth...' (N), -vuollē 'der Platz unten oder nahebei, Unterlage' (L), vī̊ille (T) 'das Untere', vī̊ilne, vī̊iln (T), vūiln (Kld.), vueiln (Not.), voiln (Not.) (adv., postp.) 'unter, unten'
Mordovian: al (E M) 'das untere, unten befindliche', alo (E), ala (M) 'unten, unter'
Mari (Cheremis): ül- (KB, B), ülö-, ül- (U) 'das Untere, Unter-', ülnǝ (KB), ülnö (U, B) (adv. postp.) 'unten, unter'
Udmurt (Votyak): ul (S) 'Unterteil, Unterraum, Unteres', ulǝ̑n (K) 'unter, unten', ul (G) 'Unterraum, Unteres', ulị̑n (G) 'unter'
Komi (Zyrian): -ul (S), -i̮v (P) in ǯoǯ-ul, ǯe̮ǯ-i̮v 'Raum, Keller unter dem Fußboden', uli̮n (S), uvi̮n (P) 'unten, unter', ul (PO) 'das untere', ulø.n (PO) 'niedrig, unten, unter'
Khanty (Ostyak): i̮l (V), it (DN), il (O) 'unterer, nieder', i̮lǝn (V), itǝn (DN), ilǝn (O) 'unten'
Mansi (Vogul): jalē̮.k (TJ), jalχ (KU), jalk (P), jolik (So.) 'der Untere', jalǝ,n (TJ), jɔ̄̈ln (KU), jalǝn (P), jolǝn (So.) 'unten', jil (TJ) 'hinab; hinunter'
Hungarian: al- 'Unter-; unterer Teil; Streu', alatt (adv. post.) 'unten, unter'
Nenets (Yurak): ŋilna (O) 'unter, unten', ŋilʔ 'hinunter, hinab'
Enets (Yen): iðo (Ch.), iro (B) 'Boden', iðone (Ch.) 'unter'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋilea 'das Untere'
Selkup: ȋȋl (Ta.), ȋl (Ke.), ȋl, ȋ.l 'Boden, das Untere', ȋȋl (Ta.), illé (N) 'unterhin'
Kamass: jildǝ 'untenhin', jilgǝn 'unten'
Janhunen's version: (38) *i6la
Sammalahti's version: *i6la
Yukaghir parallels: -al 'unter; under'
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 728; MSzFgrE; TESz.; EtSz.; SzófSz.; Donn. VglWb. II, 116; Paas. Beitr. 38; ИВПЯ 212; Collinder JukUr. 75
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,uralet-yuk,uralet-lit,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *el- (?)
Meaning : to go down (of sun)
Proto-North Dravidian : *elG-r-
dravet-meaning,dravet-ndr,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *elG-r-
Meaning : to go down
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : elkhrnā "to go down (sun, moon, stars), be well past the meridian"
Malto : elqre "to descend (as the sun)"
Number in DED : 841
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVLV
Meaning : below
Eurasiatic : *HalV
Sino-Caucasian : PEC *ƛ̣_i 'below, down'
Amerind (misc.) : Penut., Chibch. *ali 'below, deep' (under *ali 'long' R 443)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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