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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŏ̀k`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp point, notch
Russian meaning: острие, зазубрина
Turkic: *ok
Mongolian: *(h)oki
Tungus-Manchu: *ok-
Japanese: *àkuàjaì
Comments: Poppe 98, 134, KW 284. The morphological structure of Jpn. is not quite clear (perhaps some old compound is reflected); this, together with rather scarce representation in TM, makes the reconstruction not quite reliable. Note that the Jpn. form may also continue PA *ā̀gV q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ok
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: arrow
Russian meaning: стрела
Old Turkic: oq (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: oq (MK, KB)
Turkish: ok
Tatar: uq
Middle Turkic: oq
Uzbek: ụq
Uighur: oq
Sary-Yughur: oq
Azerbaidzhan:
Turkmen: oq
Khakassian: ux
Shor: oq
Oyrat: oq
Chuvash: oɣъ
Yakut: ox
Tuva: o'q
Kirghiz: oq
Kazakh: oq
Noghai: oq
Bashkir: uq
Balkar: oq
Gagauz: oq
Karaim: oq
Karakalpak: oq
Kumyk: oq
Comments: VEWT 389, ЭСТЯ 1, 437-438, TMN 2, 153, Лексика 577, Федотов 2, 296. Cf. also Turk. *oklagu 'rolling pin' (ЭСТЯ 1, 441-442), Khal. họqlaɣo_ (derived from ok-la- 'to roll' (R 1 1000, Chag.), a denominative from ok 'wheel axle' in the Oghuz and Qarluq groups).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *(h)oki
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: top, tip, edge
Russian meaning: верхушка, кончик
Written Mongolian: oki (L 607)
Khalkha: ox́
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ok-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 arrow with wooden head 2 fish fin 3 fishing hook
Russian meaning: 1 стрела с деревянной головкой 2 плавник (рыбы) 3 рыболовный крючок
Evenki: oki-kta 2
Literary Manchu: oki jōro 1
Orok: ōqo 3
Udighe: o` 'fish gear' (Корм. 273)
Comments: ТМС 2, 9, 10.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-man,tunget-ork,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *àkuàjaì
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: pheasant's spur
Russian meaning: шпора фазана
Old Japanese: akwoje
Middle Japanese: àkòjè
Comments: JLTT 377.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *Hoḳi
Meaning: sharp
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *aḱ-, *oḱ-
Altaic: *ŏ̀k`à
Uralic: PFU *okas
Kartvelian: *hweḳ-
Dravidian: *ògir; or PGn *āk- (29)
References: МССНЯ 353, ОСНЯ 1, 251-252; ND 124 *[ʕ]oḳi 'sharp point, edge'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ok(')-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: sharp
Old Greek: ókri-s m. `Spitze, scharfe Kante, Ecke', okrí-bās `erhöhter Platz, Gerust, Tribüne'; oksǘ- `scharf, stechend', óksos n. `Weinessig'
Germanic: *áxw-al-a- m.
Latin: ocris, -is m. `steiniger Berg'; mediocris, -e `mittelmässig, nicht sehr gross; unbedeutend; gemassigt, genügsam', medioximus `der mittelste'; ?? ocrea f. `Beinschiene'
Other Italic: Umbr ukar, ocar `arx, mōns'
Celtic: MIr ochar `Ecke, Rand', Cymr ochr, ochyr `Rand'; *okulēnā: OCymr ocoluin `cos', NCymr agalen, hogalen; *hākulēnā: NBret higolen `Wetzstein'
Russ. meaning: острый
References: WP I 28 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *áxwala-z
Meaning: awl
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: soδ-āl-l m. `Fleischgabel'
Old English: awel `an awl' (точно ӑ- !)
English: awl
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-engl,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *hweḳ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: острый конец
English meaning: sharp end
Georgian: eḳal-, месх. heḳal-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): шип, колючка
Georgian meaning (Engl.): thorn, prick
Megrel: leḳal-
Megrel meaning (Rus.): шип, колючка
Megrel meaning (Eng.): thorn, prick
Svan: hoḳer, woḳer
Svan meaning (Rus.): оконечность, конец
Svan meaning (Eng.): tip, end
Notes and references: Основа реконструирована Иллич-Свитычем (ОСНЯ 1, 252); она сравнивается с ПИЕ *aḱ- / *oḱ- 'острие', алт. *āko id., ф.-уг. *okas 'зубец, шип, колючка', с реконструкцией ностр. *Hoḳi.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-meg,kartet-mgmean,kartet-emgmean,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ògir
Meaning : claw, nail
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ugir
Proto-Telugu : *gōr-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *oger
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gōr-
Proto-North Dravidian : *orq
Brahui : hōr
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ugir
Meaning : finger-nail
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ukir
Tamil meaning : finger-nail, toe-nail, claw
Malayalam : ukir
Malayalam meaning : finger-nail, toe-nail, claw
Kannada : ugur
Kannada meaning : nail, claw
Kannada derivates : ugi to hurt, tear, rend with the nails; ugurisu to scratch asunder
Kodagu : oy
Kodagu meaning : nail
Tulu : uguru
Tulu meaning : nail
Proto-Nilgiri : *ugĭr
Number in DED : 0561
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ugĭr
Meaning : fingernail
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ūr "finger-nail, claw, each half of hoof"
Toda : ǖr "finger-nail, toe-nail"
Additional forms : Also Kota ūr-gaṇ finger-nail; Toda ǖr-xoṇ end of finger-nail
Number in DED : 561
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *gōr-
Meaning : nail
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : gōru
Number in DED : 561
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *oger
Meaning : nail
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : gōr (pl. gōḍl)
Naikri : gōr (pl. gōrḷ)
Naiki : gōr
Parji : gēri (pl. gēril)
Salur Gadba : gēre
Notes : This reconstruction (which agrees perfectly with SDR) is proposed to explain the differences between Kolami-Naiki - Parji-Gadba. While in the latter *oger- > *gēr-, in the former the quality of the first syllable vowel was transferred to the sec. syllable.
Number in DED : 561
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-salur,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gōr-
Meaning : nail
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *gōr-
Konda : gōru
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *gōr (*-ū-)
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gōr-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *gōr-
Meaning : nail
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Seoni Gondi : gōr
Number in DED : 561
Number in CVOTGD : 1233
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_s,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : gōru
Meaning: nail
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 561
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *gōr (*-ū-)
Meaning : nail
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Manda : gūr (pl. -ke)
Number in DED : 561
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gōr-
Meaning : nail
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : gōra
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : gōrū
Kuwi (Schulze) : gōru
Sunkarametta Kuwi : gōru (pl. gōrka)
Parja Kuwi : gōru (pl. gōrka)
Additional forms : Also Kui grōpa (grōt-) to claw, scratch; n. act of clawing, scratching, a scratch
Notes : Extremely interesting is Kui unguli, (K) unjuli, which are most certainly borrowings, maybe from Telugu. What has Latin ungulus to do with that? Kui grōpa < *gōr-pa; this qword should certainly belong here and not to DED 2257, as B&E think.
Number in DED : 561
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *orq
Meaning : nail
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : orOx
Malto : orgu
Number in DED : 561
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : hōr
Meaning : finger
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 561
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVKV
Meaning : sharp point, tooth
Eurasiatic : *Hoḳi
Sino-Caucasian : *HVQwV́
Austric : Thai *xeu 'tooth', AA *hVw
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HVʁwV́
Meaning: tooth
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *Gʷa (s-)
Yenisseian: *ʔaG (~x-)
Burushaski: *-hVwá-ṣ
Comments and references : Cf. also ND *xʷōʔ 'tooth'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Gʷa (s-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tooth
Tibetan: so tooth.
Burmese: swah tooth, LB *swax.
Kachin: wa1 tooth.
Lushai: ha, KC *ha.
Lepcha: fo
Kiranti: *wa ( ~ K-)
Comments: Mikir so; BG: Dimasa ha-thai, Garo wa; Moshang va, Namsangia pa; Rawang sa, Trung sa2; Newari wa; Kham hā̀; Mantshati tshoa, Thebor soa; Kadu sǝwa; Rgyarung -swe. Sh. 53, 124, 135, 407, 430; Ben. 106.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *wa ( ~ K-)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: tooth
Limbu: ha
Comments: Attested only in Limbu, but having good external parallels.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-lim,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: ha
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: tooth.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔaG (~x-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tooth (molar)
Ket: ā // aʔ ; North. aɣ-itǝŋ5 'molars'
Yug: ā // ār
Comments: ССЕ 179. Werner 1, 85 <*aʎ>; although Yug. -r in ār is unclear, the lateral or trill is definitely not reconstructable because of the attested form ā; it is also impossible to treat -ɣ- as an "Interfix".
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *hVwá-ṣ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 molar tooth 2 to chew
Yasin: -háṣe -mé 1
Hunza: -wáṣ -mé 1, wā́ṣ -́t- 2
Nagar: wā́ṣ -́t- 2
Comments: Sh. wā́ṣ `chew'
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,buruet-notes,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *hVw
Meaning: tooth
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: hVw
Austroasiatic meaning: tooth
Proto-Thai: *xeu
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: hVw
Meaning: tooth
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Khmer: hiǝw
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kmr,

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