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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *agu-la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: uninhabited place, wilderness
Russian meaning: незаселенное место, пустошь
Turkic: *aglak
Mongolian: *aɣula
Tungus-Manchu: *agulān
Comments: Poppe 58. A Western isogloss. May be derived from the root reflected in TM as *agī- 'to walk without a road', 'wilderness' (ТМС 1, 13; its borrowing from Mong. aɣui 'wide', suggested by Poppe 1972, 101, Doerfer MT 123, is highly dubious). Note that vowel length in PT *aglak is unknown; if the original meaning of the root was 'to nomadize', one is tempted to compare also PT *āgɨl 'settlement' (originally perhaps 'nomadic settlement'; see Лексика 492-493, 522-523, ЭСТЯ 1, 65-66, 83-85, TMN 2, 82-84, Stachowski 257), whence probably MMong., WMong. ajil id. ( > Evk. ail etc., see Doerfer MT 125). Not borrowed from Turkic, but rather genuine may also be WMong. ajimak 'a group of ajil's' (TMN 1, 184-185: Mong. > Khak., Tuva ajmaq (see also ЭСТЯ 1, 110), Man. ajman etc.).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *aglak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 field
Russian meaning: 1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степь
Old Turkic: aɣlaq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)
Karakhanid: aɣlaq 1 (MK), aɣla-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *aɣla- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), aɣla-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'
Turkish: aylak 2; aɣlak (dial.) 1
Tatar: awlaq 1
Khakassian: aɣlax 1
Chuvash: ulax 1
Kirghiz: ōlaq 1
Kazakh: awlaq 1
Noghai: awlaq 1
Bashkir: awlaq 1
Balkar: awlaq 1
Gagauz: ajlaq, hajlaq 2
Karaim: awlaq 1
Karakalpak: awlaq 1
Kumyk: awlaq 3
Comments: EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, ЭСТЯ 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. aɣlaq, aɣlaɣa id. (KW 3, Щербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *āb-lag 'hunting lands'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *aɣula
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mountain
Russian meaning: гора
Written Mongolian: aɣula(n) (L 17)
Middle Mongolian: a'ula (HY 2, SH 10), awla (IM 433), (a)ula, ūla (MA 372, 189)
Khalkha: ūl
Buriat: ūla
Kalmuck: ūlǝ
Ordos: ūla
Dongxian: ula (Тод. Дн. 137)
Baoan: ōle (Тод. Бн. 145), ulǝ
Dagur: aul(a) (Тод. Даг. 122), aule (MD 116)
Shary-Yoghur: ūla
Monguor: ula (SM 469), ulā
Mogol: aula; ZM āwla (17-8b)
Comments: KW 454, MGCD 662. Mong. > Sol. aula id.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *agulān
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: meadow, plain
Russian meaning: поляна, равнина
Evenki: awlān, aɣlān
Even: awlъn
Negidal: awlan
Ulcha: awda(n)
Orok: awla(n)
Nanai: aodã
Oroch: auda, aula
Comments: ТМС 1, 9. Despite Doerfer MT 73, cannot be borrowed from Mong. aɣlaɣ ( < Turk., see above).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *aHulV
Meaning: settlement
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *awǝl-
Altaic: *agu-la
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *awǝl-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: court, street
Armenian: uɫ, uɫi `Weg'
Old Greek: au̯lǟ́ f. `äusserer oder innerer Hof, Wohnung', áu̯lio-n n. `Landhaus, Hürde, Grotte', âu̯lis, -idos, acc. -in f. `Nachtlager (im Freien)'
Slavic: *ū́līcā, *-ūlъkъ
Russ. meaning: двор, улица
References: [Different in Pok.]
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: у́лица,
Near etymology: зау́лок, закоу́лок, переу́лок, укр. ву́лиця, блр. ву́лка -- то же, безу́льны "бездорожный" (Мi. ЕW 372), др.-русск. улица "площадь; улица; проход", улъка "переулок", сербск.-цслав. улица πλατεῖα, болг. у́лица "улица", сербохорв. у̏лица "двор, улица", словен. úlica "улица, дорога, по которой гонят скотину", чеш. ulice "улица", слвц., польск. ulica, в.-луж. wulica.
Further etymology: Праслав. *ulа родственно словам, приводимым на у́лей: греч. αὑλός "продолговатая полость, дудка", ἔναυλος м. "русло реки", αὑλών "овраг", вестфальск. ōl, аul "овраг, луг, впадина, канава", арм. uɫi (основа на -i̯о-) "дорога, путешествие"; см. Педерсен, KZ 39, 458 и сл.; Лиден, Armen. Stud. 78; Траутман, ВSW 18; Арr. Sprd. 307; Хольтхаузен, РВВ 66, 274. Другие сравнивают с греч. αὑλή "двор" (Брандт, РФВ 25, 34, Видеман, ВВ 27, 255, Мерингер, Zschr. österr. Gymn., 1903, Шрадер -- Неринг 2, 494, Горяев, ЭС 387), которое нельзя отделять от греч. αὖλις ж. "стоянка", ἄγραυλος "находящийся, ночующий в поле, сельский" и ἰαύω "сплю" и которое, таким образом, остается в стороне; см. Буазак 100 и сл.; Гофман, Gr. Wb. 28.
Pages: 4,159-160
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVLV
Meaning : settlement ( < *root, seed?)
Eurasiatic : *aHulV
Afroasiatic : *ʔVhVl-
Sino-Caucasian : *Hĭƛ̣_īwVɫV̄
Reference : ND under *ʔuh[V]ĺV 'hut' compares PSH with hardly related Alt. and Drav. forms.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔVhVl-
Meaning: tent, hut, family
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Notes: ND 35 (Sem. and scattered Cush. forms).
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *Hĭƛ̣ī́wVɫV̄
Meaning: root; village
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *Hĭƛ̣_īwV(-ɫV̄)
Sino-Tibetan: *trɨaɫ
Burushaski: *jult
Comments and references : NSC 57 *(H)ƛ̣_iwVɫV, WFR 37.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *Hĭƛ̣_īwV(-ɫV̄)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: root, seed; kin
Proto-Nakh: *ʔablV (~-ʎ-,-Ł-)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hiƛ̣:ib (/-m)
Proto-Tsezian: *ƛib(u) A
Proto-Lezghian: *ƛ̣:iw(a)
Proto-West Caucasian: *ƛ:́ʷǝlA
Notes: Cf. also HU: Urart. zil(i)b- 'seed; descendants, kin' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 48).

    An interesting common NC root. An original polysemy ("root, seed" : "kin, clan") can be reconstructed, because both meanings keep recurring in different subbranches (Nakh, Avar, WC, HU). The meaning 'leaf' in PC is obviously secondary - although phonetically PC *ƛib(u) goes back directly to *Hĭƛ̣_īwV, semantically it has merged with PNC *ƛ̣ăpi 'leaf' q.v.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʔablV (̃-ʎ-,-Ł-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 root 2 village
Chechen: evla 2
Ingush: ovla 1
Comments: Vowel differences in Chech. and Ing. can be explained by different analogical levellings of a paradigm like *ʔabla, *ʔabli-. The semantic difference can be explained if we look at external evidence (this root reveals meanings like "root" and "kin, family > village" in many languages). Thus the resemb- lance of the Chech. word to Turkish (e.g. Tat. aul "village" etc.) is probably accidental (at the most the Turk. word could have influenced the meaning of the Chech. word - but there are not enough reasons to speak of a loan).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *hiƛ̣:ib (/-m)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: root
Avar: ƛ̣:ibíl
Chadakolob: ƛ̣ibíl
Andian language: hiƛ̣:im
Akhvakh: eƛ̣:e
Chamalal: heƛ̣:im
Tindi: heƛ̣:ab
Karata: heƛ̣:ebo
Botlikh: hiƛ̣:ib
Bagvalal: herƛ̣:em
Godoberi: hiƛ̣:im
Comments: Av. has a suffixed form (with -il); accent paradigm B (ƛ̣:olbó-l, ƛ̣:albá-l). Note the parallel meaning 'kin, family' in Av. (a rather archaic feature).

    Cf. also Akhv. Tlan., Ratl., Tseg. eƛ̣:eb, Kar. Anch. reƛ̣:ebo ( < *herƛ̣:ebo). The epenthetic -r- in Kar. Anch. and Bagv. is obviously secondary.

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ƛib(u) A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: leaf
Tsezi: ƛaIb
Ginukh: ƛebu
Khvarshi: ƛib
Inkhokvari: ƛib
Bezhta: ƛibo
Gunzib: ƛibu
Comments: PTsKh *ƛib(u), PGB *ƛibu.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ƛ̣:iw(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: root
Tabasaran: č:iv
Comment: The word has no parallels within the Lezghian family (from Tab. dialects cf. also Düb. ǯuv 'root'), but (assuming that Tab. č: here regularly goes back to PL *ƛ̣: before a front vowel) has very good external cognates.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ƛ:́ʷǝlA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 seed 2 kin, clan 3 village, people, society
Abkhaz: á-ž̌la 1,2
Abaza: žʷla 1
Adyghe: č́ǝLa 3
Kabardian: žǝLa 1,3
Ubykh: ǯ́ǝjǝ 1
Comments: PAT *žʷǝla (cf. also Bz. á-ž̌la). The root means both 'seed' and 'clan, kin' in Abkh.; in Abaz. cf. žʷla-ra 'people, village, society'. PAK *č:́ǝLá. The root also means both 'seed' and 'people, village' in Kab., but in Ad. it preserved only the more abstract meaning. In the natural sense ('seed') the root is preserved in Ad. within the compound č́ǝLā-pχ 'seeds, seed stock' (etymology of the second component see under *pǝ̃χʷǝ).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *trɨaɫ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: soil belonging to a village, convent
Chinese: 廛 *d_ran soil belonging to one peasant family.
Tibetan: źol village belonging to a convent.
Burmese: twij a group of people.
Kachin: (H) uthon a village.
Lushai: tual the street; a person belonging to the village (not a stranger).
Lepcha: tjol village
Kiranti: *dèl
Comments: Bahing dyal; Kulung tel. Ben. 52.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: chán
Preclassic Old Chinese: d(h)ran
Classic Old Chinese: d(h)ran
Western Han Chinese: ḍ(h)an
Eastern Han Chinese: ḍ(h)an
Early Postclassic Chinese: ḍ(h)en
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ḍ(h)en
Late Postclassic Chinese: ḍ(h)en
Middle Chinese: ḍen
English meaning : a farm, farmyard
Russian meaning[s]: 1) поместье, усадьба; дом купца; 2) торговое помещение; торговые ряды; 3) земельный надел
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 53
Four-angle index: 239
Karlgren code: 0204 a
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *dèl
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: village
Tulung: del, ḍel
Kaling: del
Limbu: tappā
Dumi: dēl
Kulung: tel
Comments: Toba 98 *tel.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-notes,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: de:l
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: village
Nepali: gāũ.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: tel
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: village
Nepali: gāuṃ.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *jult
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 land, country 2 small land, edge of field for planting apricot trees
Hunza: jult 1
Nagar: jult 2
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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