Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Maxakalí group (Macro-Jê family).

Languages included: Maxakalí [max-mxk].

DATA SOURCES

I. Maxakalí

Antunes 1999 = Antunes, Marisa Aparecida Domingos. Pequeno dicionário indígena Maxakali-Português/Português-Maxakali. Juiz de Fora, MG: s.ed. // A vocabulary of Maxakalí. The entries are not accompanied with any examples of usage.

Araújo 2000 = Araújo, Gabriel Antunes. Fonologia e Morfologia da Língua Maxakali. (MA thesis.) Campinas, SP: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. // A description of Maxakalí phonology and morphology.

Campos 2009 = Campos, Carlo Sandro de Oliveira. Morfofonêmica e morfossintaxe do Maxakalí. (PhD thesis.) Belo Horizonte, MG: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. // A description of Maxakalí alternations and morphosyntax.

Gudschinsky, Popovich & Popovich 1970 = Gudschinsky, Sarah C.; Harold Popovich; Frances Popovich. Native Reaction and Phonetic Similarity in Maxakali Phonology. Language 46(1): 77–88. // A pioneer work describing some peculiarities of Maxakalí phonology. All the lexical material is cited without any contexts, with a simple gloss.

Popovich & Popovich 2005 = Popovich, A. Harold; Frances B. Popovich. Maxakalí-English Dictionary. English-Maxakalí Glossary. Cuiabá, MT: Sociedade Internacional de Lingüística. // A dictionary of Maxakalí with a grammar sketch. The entries are accompanied with examples of usage.

Silva 2014 = Silva, Mário André Coelho da. A coda consonantal em Maxakalí. (MA thesis.) Campinas: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. // A work dedicated to the phonetic realization of Maxakalí syllable-final consonants. A small wordlist used in elicitation sessions is attached.

Silva f.n. = Comments based on Mário André Coelho da Silvaʼs field materials, kindly provided to the compiler by the author.

NOTES

I. Maxakalí.

Maxakalí is spoken by approximately 2,000 people in four villages in northwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data from consulted sources are generally in mutual agreement. In cases of conflicting data, [Silva f.n.] was given priority.

Correspondences between the orthographic representation and UTS for the consonants are as follows:

Orthography UTS (onset) UTS (coda)
p p p
t t 0
x ɕ 0
k k k
m m, b m, b
n n, d 0
y ɲ, ʓ 0
g g ŋ, g
h h -
ʼ, 0 ʔ ʔ, 0

If the underlying coda is homorganic with the following consonant, it is deleted, leaving compensatory lengthening on the previous vowel. After oral syllables {m}, {n} and {y} in nasal syllables surface as [hm], [hn], [hɲ] (e.g. pɛtɛhnãɨ̯̃ŋ {petenãg}}. Word-final open syllables are followed with an automatic ʔ (e.g. pataʔ {pata}).

Correspondences between orthographic representation and UTS for vowels are as follows:

Orthography UTS UTS (before /-p/)1 UTS (before /-t/) UTS (before /-c/) UTS (before /-k/)
a a2 aɤ̯ ɑǝ̯ ɑi̯ aɨ̯
ãɤ̯̃ ɑ̃ǝ̯̃ ɑ̃ĩ̯ ãɨ̯̃
e ɛ ɛɤ̯ äǝ̯ äi̯ äi̯
ɛ̃ ɛ̃ɤ̯̃ ä̃ǝ̯̃ ä̃ĩ̯ ä̃ĩ̯
i i iɤ̯ iǝ̯ ɪi̯ ɪi̯
ĩɤ̯̃ ĩǝ̯̃ ɪ̃ĩ̯ ɪ̃ĩ̯
o u uɤ̯ ʊǝ̯ ʊi̯ oɨ̯
ũɤ̯̃ ʊ̃ǝ̯̃ ʊ̃ĩ̯ õɨ̯̃
u ɨ ɨɤ̯ ɨǝ̯ ɨi̯ ɘɨ̯
ɨ̃ ɨ̃ɤ̯̃ ɨ̃ǝ̯̃ ɨ̃ĩ̯ ɘ̃ɨ̯̃

1 The actual pronunciation of ɤ̯ is closer to [β̞].
2 {a} is realized as ɒ in the syllable pɒʔ {pa}.
Additionally, ɘ̃ is found in the word nɘ̃hɘ̃ {nũhũ}.

In long noun forms containing VhVC or VʔVC sequences both vowels are targeted by the lowering/backing caused by the coda. This makes vowel allophony marginally contrastive, cf. [kaʔɑi̯] 'end' and [pɨtɑhɑǝ̯] 'road'.

Database compiled and annotated by: André Nikulin (June 2017).