Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Jabutí group (Macro-Jê family).

Languages included: Arikapú (Maxubí) [ndh-ari], Djeoromitxí (Jabutí) [ndh-dje].


Voort = Voort, Hein van der. Proto-Jabutí: um primeiro passo na reconstrução da língua ancestral dos Arikapú e Djeoromitxí. In: Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas, Belém, v. 2, n. 2, p. 133-168, mai-ago. 2007. // A pioneer work dedicated to the phonological reconstruction of Proto-Jabutí, containing over 200 reconstructed words.

I. Arikapú

Ribeiro 2008 = Ribeiro, Rosa Maria de Lima. Dicionário Arikapu / Português, registro de uma língua indígena amazônica. Master's thesis. Guajará-Mirim, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Campus de Guajará-Mirim. // A comprehensive dictionary of Arikapú; each entry is accompanied by numerous examples.

Arikapú et al. 2010 = Arikapú, Mamoa; Nazaré Arikapú; Hein van der Voort. Vocabulário Arikapú-Português. Cadernos de Etnolingüística. Monografias, 1. // A less extensive dictionary. The entries are sometimes accompanied by usage examples.

II. Djeoromitxí

Ribeiro 2008b = Ribeiro, Michela Araújo. Dicionário Djeoromitxí-Português. Registro da diveridade lingüística do povo Jabuti. Master's thesis. Guajará-Mirim, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Campus de Guajará-Mirim. // A comprehensive dictionary of Djeoromitxí; each entry is accompanied by numerous examples.


I. Arikapú.

Arikapú is an almost extinct language. In pre-contact times, it was spoken in the headwaters of Rio Branco (Alta Floresta, Rondônia, Brazil). The last speaker, Nazaré Arikapú, resides in Baía das Onças, where the majority of population speaks Djeoromitxí. Her sister Maria reportedly lives in Baía da Coca (Terra Indígena Guaporé) and mostly uses Tuparí and Makuráp (both belong to Tuparí group, Tupían family) in her daily life. Mamoa Arikapú (deceased), one of the last full speakers of the language, resided in Cajuí village in Terra Indígena Rio Branco and mostly used Tuparí.

The data from [Ribeiro 2008] and [Arikapú et al. 2010] are normally in accordance. However, Arikapú et al. do not distinguish /o/ and /u/ (both are written as u), whereas Ribeiro does not distinguish /i/ and /ɪ/. Moreover, Arikapú et al. consider the difference between prenasalized and nasal consonants non-phonemic; they write nasal vowels whenever oral vowels preceded by nasal consonants are found in Ribeiro's transcription. Ribeiro, in turn, treats /b/ as an underlyingly prenasalized consonant which loses its prenasalization after oral vowels.

The transcription used in the database is largely phonetic and follows Ribeiro's transcription faithfully. The orthography is that of Arikapú et al.

The correspondences between the notation systems are presented below.

UTS Ribeiro 2008 Arikapú et al. 2010 (orthography)
p p p
nb mb b
nb mb m (before r + nasal vowel)
b b b
β β w
m m m
w w w
t t t
nd nd d
ɾ ɾ r
č tʃ tx
nǯ ndʒ dj
ɲ ɲ n (before i)
k k k
ʔ ʔ -
h h h
a a a
ǝ ǝ ä
ɨ ɨ ü
ɔ ɔ o
o o u
u u u
ɛ ɛ e
i i i
ɪ ɪ
ɐ̃ ɐ̃
ǝ̃ ǝ̃ ä̃
ɔ̃ ɔ̃
ɛ̃ ɛ̃
y ɪ̯ y
ɪ̯̃ y
w ʊ̯ w
ʊ̯ w

II. Djeoromitxí.

Djeoromitxí is still spoken by a handful of people in southern Rondônia, in Terra Indígena Guaporé.

The transcription used by Ribeiro [2008b] is adapted to UTS for use throughout GLD. The correspondences between the transcription and the orthography are the following:

UTS Ribeiro 2008b Orthography
p p p
p͡s ps ps
b b b
b͡z bz bz
β β w
ʔm ʔm m
ɸ ɸ pf
t t t
d d d
ɾ ɾ r
ʔn ʔn n
č tʃ tx
ǯ dʒ dj
k k k
ħ ħ h
ʔ ʔ -
a a a
ǝ ǝ ä
o o o
u u u
ö ø ü
ɛ ɛ e
i i i
ɐ̃ ɐ̃
ɔ̃ ɔ̃
ɛ̃ ɛ̃


The reconstruction is ours. It is based on the following correspondences:

Proto-Jabutí Arikapú Djeoromitxí
*p p p, p͡s (before *i), ɸ (before a labial vowel)
*nb nb b, b͡z (before *i)
*w w, β β
*m m ʔm
*pɾ p, ɸ (before a labial vowel)
*mɾ ʔm
*t t t
*nd nd d
ɾ ɾ, ʔn (before nasals)
*n n ʔn
č č
č ɾ
*nǯ nǯ (?) ǯ (?)
*j (only before *i) č ǯ
h (č before i) ħ
*k k k
*kɾ t
*nɾ ǯ
ʔ ʔ
*a a a
ǝ ǝ, ɛ (after coronals)
ɨ i
ɔ ö
*o o o
*u u u
ɛ ɛ
ɪ i
*i i i
*ɐ̃ ɐ̃ ɔ̃
*ũ ɔ̃
*ay ay a
*ǝy ay ǝ, ɛ (after coronals)
*ɛy ǝy ɛ
*iy ǝy ɛ
*ǝ̃ỹ ãỹ ɛ̃

The correspondences between some nasal vowels and most diphthongs have not been sufficiently well established.

The reconstructions from [Voort] (including their numbers in the paper) are adduced, when available. Voort's phonological reconstructions are based on limited lexical data and suffer from a number of ad hoc solutions.

Database compiled and annotated by: André Nikulin (November-December 2015).