Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Washo group (Washo family).

Languages included:
Washo [wsh-wsh].


Main source

Jacobsen 1964 = Jacobsen, Jr., William Horton. A Grammar of the Washo Language. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley // A voluminous (circa 700 pages) descriptive grammar of the Washo language, based on the author’s field work, conducted in 1955-1959.

Additional sources

Jacobsen 1958a = Jacobsen, William H. [Washo vocabulary]. // A wordlist of Washo, collected for the Survey of California Indian Languages. Represents a 14-page standard Survey vocabulary sheet, filled in by the Washo data in morphophonemic and phonemic notation. Available online at (item number: Jacobsen.001).

Jacobsen 1958b = Jacobsen, William H. Washo and Karok: An Approach to Comparative Hokan. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 24, No. 3, Franz Boas Centennial Volume, (Jul., 1958), pp. 195-212. // A lexical comparison of Washo and Karok. Washo data are from unpublished field notes by the author.

Jacobsen 1980 = Jacobsen, William H. Washo bipartite verb stems. In: K. Klar, M. Langdon, S. Silver (eds.) American Indian and Indoeuropean Studies. Papers in Honor of Madison S. Beeler. The Hague, Paris, New York: Mouton Publishers. P. 85-99. // An article on an important type of compound verb stems in Washo.

Kroeber 1907 = Kroeber, A. L. The Washo Language of East Central California and Nevada. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 4. No. 5. P. 251-317. Berkeley: University of California Press // A short sketch of Washo grammar.

The Washo Project = Online dictionary of the Washo language on the Washo Documentation Project website (; accessed at 10 March 2013).



The Washo data were transliterated into the UTS as follows:

z ʒ
W w

Database compiled by: M. Zhivlov (March 2013).