Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Ramaráma group (Tupían family).

Languages included: Káro [ram-kar].


I. Káro

Gabas Júnior 1989 = Gabas Júnior, Nilson. 1989. Estudo fonológico da língua Karo (Arara de Rondônia). (MA thesis.) Campinas, SP: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. // A description of Káro phonology and phonetics. No vocabulary is found.

Gabas Júnior 1999 = Gabas Júnior, Nilson. 1999. A Grammar of Karo, Tupí (Brazil). (PhD thesis.) Santa Barbara: University of California. // A grammar of Káro. No vocabulary is found.

Galucio et al. 2015 = Galucio, Ana Vilacy; Sérgio Meira; Joshua Birchall; Denny Moore; Nilson Gabas Júnior; Sebastian Drude; Luciana Storto; Gessiane Picanço; Carmen Reis Rodrigues. 2015. Genealogical relations and lexical distances within the Tupian linguistic family. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas 10(2). // A paper that aims to measure the lexical distances between the languages of the Tupían family. A non-annotated Swadesh list is included.


I. Káro

Káro is spoken by approximately 150 people in Rondônia, Brazil. The transcription used here mostly ignores allophonic variation (such as e / ɛ, o / ɔ, w / w̃, y / ỹ), but takes into account major allophones of nasal consonants (postnasalized and preoralized stops). Since Gabas Júnior uses a modified version of IPA throughout the main body of his work, only minor adjustments are needed, such as c > ȶ. Stress and tonal contrasts are marked when this information is available or predictable.

The adjectives are cited without adjectivizers. Bare verb stems are cited, though in discourse they usually occur with TAM suffixes that interact with the final consonant of the verb (e.g., -t-t > -dn / -n, -p-t > -y etc., see [Gabas Júnior 1999]).

Data from [Galucio et al. 2015] are used primarily when the word is not attested in [Gabas Júnior 1989, 1999]. In cases of conflicting data, [Gabas Júnior 1989, 1999] is given priority.

Database compiled and annotated by: André Nikulin (July 2017).