Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Nadahup group (Nadahup family).

Languages included: Hup (= Hupdë, Hupdá) [ndh-hup], Dâw [ndh-daw], Nadëb [ndh-ndb].



Martins 2005 = Martins, Valteir. Reconstrução fonológica do Protomaku oriental. Utrecht: LOT. // A PhD thesis dedicated to the phonological and lexical reconstruction of Proto-Nadahup. Comprises phonological descriptions of individual languages, as well as an extensive list of cognates with reconstructions (partly ad-hoc and not very reliable).

I. Hup

Epps 2005 = Epps, Patience. A Grammar of Hup. PhD thesis. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. // An extensive work on the grammar of Hup, accompanied by glossed texts. No glossary is found.

Ramirez 2006 = Ramirez, Henri. A língua dos Hupdʼäh do alto Rio Negro. Dicionário e guia de conversação. São Paulo: Saúde Sem Limites. // A Hup-Portuguese and Portuguese-Hup dictionary. The entries are often accompanied by usage examples.

II. Dâw

Andrade 2014 = Andrade, Wallace Costa de. A nasalização na língua Dâw. Master's thesis. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo. // A work dedicated to the feature of nasalization in Dâw. Very little lexical material can be extracted.

Martins 2004 = Martins, Silvana Andrade. Fonologia e gramática Dâw. Utrecht: LOT. // A comprehensive description of Dâw phonology and grammar, accompanied by numerous glossed sentences. No glossary is attached.

III. Nadëb

Barbosa 2005 = Barbosa, Jefferson Fernando. Descrição fonológica a língua Nadëb. Master's thesis. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília. // A brief outline of Nadëb phonology. All the words cited are presented in isolation, without any context.

Weir 1984 = Weir, Helen E. M. A negação e outros tópicos da gramática Nadëb. Campinas: UNICAMP. // The first half of this Master's thesis comprises an outline of Nadëb grammar, the second half is dedicated to negation in Nadëb. No glossary is attached.


I. Hup.

Hup is subdivided into three major dialect areas, namely Western Hup (between the upper Tiquié and Papuri rivers; e.g. Umari Norte), Central Hup (between the middle Tiquié and Papuri, e.g. Nova Fundação, Barreira Alta) and Eastern Hup (south of the Papuri and west of the Vaupés, e.g. Tat Deh, Serra dos Porcos). Virtually all Hup speakers are fully bilingual in Tucano, which is considered a much more prestigious language in the area; nevertheless, very few lexical borrowings can be identified.

The data from [Epps 2005] and [Ramirez 2006] are normally in accordance. Sometimes small differences are found; in a number of cases, unstressed ǝ in Ramirez's data corresponds to ɨ in Epps' data. Those cases are always noted in the database (all the forms in the primary field are from [Ramirez 2006]). References to [Martins 2005] are given when available.

Information on the underlying tones of verbs has not always been available; they are systematically quoted as high-toned.

The transcription used in the database is largely phonetic; major allophones of the consonants are distinguished. Raising and falling (trad. 'high') tones are distinguished; the allophonic variation of the falling tone (high tone before voiceless coda, falling tone elsewhere) is not indicated for the sake of legibility. Onset 'glottalized' consonants are written as plain consonants because they are realized so phonetically; their presence is rather indicated with a creaky voice symbol on the following vowel. Morpheme-final 'glottalized' consonants are also written as plain (see below).

The orthography is that of Ramirez.

The correspondences between the existing notation systems are presented below (C- stands for morpheme-initial position, -C- for morpheme-internal intervocalic position, -C-V for morpheme final position before a suffix beginning with a vowel, -C for syllable coda, + V̰ for consonants triggering the creaky voice feature on the following vowel).

Voiceless consonants (note than ʸ will be nasalized in nasal syllables):

Phoneme (Epps) Notation (Epps) Orthography (Ramirez) UTS UTS (phonetic)
p-, -p-(V) p p p p
-p p p p
t- t t t t
-t-(V) t t t tt (Barreira) ~ ɾ (Tat Deh, Umari Norte)
-t t t t
c- c s č č ~ š ~ c ~ s ~ tʸ
-c-(V) c s č č ~ ʸttʸ
-c c s ʸt ʸt̚
k-, -k-(V) k k k k
-k k k k
ʔ ʔ ', zero (word-initially) ʔ ʔ
ç ç ç ʸh ʸh
-ç-V ç ç ʸhhʸ ʸhhʸ
h h h h h
p' p + V̰ p (Tat Deh, Barreira) ~ ⁿb (Vaupés)

Voiced consonants in oral morphemes:

Phoneme (Epps) Notation (Epps) Orthography (Ramirez) UTS UTS (phonetic)
b- b b ⁿb ⁿb
-b- b b pb p̚b ~ b ~ bⁿb
-b-V b b bⁿb bⁿb
-b b b bⁿ bⁿ
d- d d ⁿd ⁿd
-d- d d ~ r ɾ ɾ ~ d ~ t̚d
-d-V d d dⁿd ~ ɾ ɾ ~ dⁿd
-d d d dⁿ dⁿ
-j j j ʸdⁿ ʸdⁿ
-j-V j j ʸdⁿdʸ ʸdⁿdʸ
-g g g gⁿ gⁿ
-g-V g g gⁿg gⁿg
w (+ front vowels) w w β β
w (elsewhere) w w w w
y- y y
-y-(V), -y y y y y
bʼ- b' ⁿb + V̰ ⁿb
-bʼ- b' pb + V̰ p̚b
-bʼ-V b' pⁿb + V p̚ⁿb
-bʼ b' p
dʼ- d' ⁿd + V̰ ⁿd
-dʼ- d' td + V̰ t̚d ~ ɾ
-dʼ-V d' tⁿd + V t̚ⁿd
-dʼ d' t
jʼ-, -jʼ- s' č + V̰ č
-jʼ-V j' ʸtⁿdʸ + V ʸt̚ⁿdʸ
-jʼ j' ʸt ʸt̚
gʼ-, -gʼ- k' k + V̰ k
-gʼ-V g' kⁿg + V k̚ⁿg
-gʼ g' k
wʼ-, -wʼ- (+ fr. vow.) w' β + V̰ β
wʼ-, -wʼ- (elsewhere) w' w + V̰ w
-wʼ-V w' wʔw + V wʔw
-wʼ w'
yʼ- y' dʸ + V̰
-yʼ-V y' yʔdʸ + V yʔdʸ
-yʼ y'

Voiced consonants in nasal morphemes:

Phoneme (Epps) Notation (Epps) Orthography (Ramirez) UTS UTS (phonetic)
b m m m m
d n n n n
-j j j ʸ̃n ʸ̃n
-j-V j j ʸ̃nnʸ̃ ʸ̃nnʸ̃
g ŋ g ŋ ŋ
w (+ front vowels) w w β̃ β̃
w (elsewhere) w w
y- y y nʸ̃ nʸ̃
-y-(V), -y y y
bʼ-, -bʼ- m' m + V̰ m
-bʼ-V m' mpm + V mpm
-bʼ mp mp̚
dʼ-, -dʼ- n' n + V̰ n
-dʼ-V n' ntn + V ntn
-dʼ n' nt nt̚
jʼ-, -jʼ- s' č + V̰ č
-jʼ-V j' ʸ̃ntnʸ̃ ʸ̃nnʸ̃ ~ ʸ̃ntnʸ̃
-jʼ j' ʸ̃n ʸ̃n̚
gʼ-, -gʼ- k' k + V̰ k
-gʼ-V k' ŋkŋ ŋkŋ
-gʼ k' ŋ ŋ̚
wʼ-, -wʼ-(+ fr. vow.) w' β̃ + V̰ β̃
wʼ-, -wʼ-(elsewhere) w' w̃ + V̰
-wʼ-V w' w̃ʔw̃ + V w̃ʔw̃
-wʼ w' w̃ʔ w̃ʔ
yʼ- y' nʸ̃ + V̰ nʸ̃
-yʼ-V y' ỹʔnʸ̃ + V ỹʔnʸ̃
-yʼ y' ỹʔ ỹʔ


Phoneme (Epps) Orthography (Ramirez) UTS
a a a
ǝ ä ǝ
ɨ ɨ ɨ
æ e ä
e e
i i i
ɔ o ɔ
o ö o
u u u

Nasal vowels are always marked with a superscript tilde in the GLD; Epps and Ramirez only do so if the syllable in question does not contain any of the symbols {m, n, ŋ}.

Epps and Ramirez mark the raising tone with a grave and the falling (high) tone with an acute. In GLD the raising tone is marked with a breve and the falling (high) tone is marked with a circumflex.

II. Dâw.

Most Dâw speakers can also speak Nheengatú (= Língua Geral, Yeral) and Portuguese.

Most Swadesh items are easily found in [Martins 2004]. Lexical material in [Andrade 2014] is scarce; it is in conformity with data from [Martins 2004]. All divergent examples are included in the Notes field. All the forms in the primary field are from [Martins 2004]. References to [Martins 2005] are given when available.

The transcription used in the database is largely phonetic; major allophones of the consonants are distinguished. Creaky voice is not marked on vowels due to its non-phonemic status and for the sake of legibility. Vowel length (present in all tonal vowels and absent from all non-tonal vowels) is noted accordingly, even though it is non-phonemic.

An outline of the orthography developed for the Dâw community is presented in [Andrade 2014], but the orthographical representation of Dâw forms is not included, since neither work uses it to cite Dâw forms and also because it remains unknown to the compiler if the orthography in question has any means to reflect Dâw tonal oppositions.

Phoneme (Martins) Orthography UTS
p p p
t t t
c ç ȶʼ-, -ȶ
k k kʼ-, -k
ʔ ʼ ʔ
b b b
d d d
ɟ j ȡ
g g g
ʃ s š
x x x
h r h
m m m, -bⁿ (after oral vowels)
n n n, -dⁿ (after oral vowels)
ɲ nh ɲ, -ȡⁿ (after oral vowels)
ŋ gn ŋ, -gⁿ (after oral vowels)
mʔ ʔm̰-, -m̰ʔ, -b̰ⁿʔ (after oral vowels)
nʔ ʔn̰-, -n̰ʔ, -d̰ⁿʔ (after oral vowels)
ɲʔ nhʼ ʔɲ̰-, -ɲ̰ʔ, -ȡ̰ⁿʔ (after oral vowels)
l l l, l̃ (in nasal syllables)
lʔ ʔl̰-, -l̰ʔ; ʔl̰̃-, -l̰̃ʔ (in nasal syllables)
w w w, w̃ (in nasal syllables)
wʔ ʔw̰-, -w̰ʔ; ʔw̰̃-, -w̰̃ʔ (in nasal syllables)
j y y, ỹ (in nasal syllables)
jʔ ʔy̰-, -y̰ʔ; ʔỹ̰-, -ỹ̰ʔ (in nasal syllables)
i i i
ɯ ʉ ɯ
u u u
e e
ɤ ɤ
o o
ɛ e ɛ
a a a
ɔ o ɔ
ɯ̃ ʉ̃ ɯ̃
ɛ̃ ɛ̃
ɔ̃ ɔ̃

III. Nadëb.

Two major dialects (that of Roçado and that of the Rio Negro) differ mainly in phonology, not in vocabulary, so they are dealt with together.

The differences between [Weir 1984] and [Barbosa 2005] are minor. Since neither source covers a significant part of the Swadesh list, data from both sources are presented in the primary field. In cases when the word is not found in any of them, data from [Martins 2005] are presented (caution was exercised, since the paper is dedicated to diachronic issues and minor differences in actual meanings of the words are irrelevant for the author).

The transciption is as follows:

Phoneme (Barbosa) Orthography GLD
p p p
t t t
k k k
ʔ - ʔ
b b b
d d d
ɟ j ȶʼ-, ȡ
g g kʼ-, -g
ʃ s š
h h h
m m m, -bⁿ after oral vowels
n n n, -dⁿ after oral vowels
ɲ nh ɲ, -ȡⁿ after oral vowels
ŋ ng ŋ, -gⁿ after oral vowels
ɾ l ɾ
w w w
j y y
a a a
ʌ ʉ́ ɜ
ǝ ʉ ɘ
ɨ ɨ ɨ
ɛ ɛ
e e e
i i i
ɔ ɔ
o o o
u u u
ɨ̃ ɨ̃ ɨ̃
ɛ̃ ɛ̃
ɔ̃ ɔ̃

Neither Barbosa nor Weir mark nasality on vowels if they are preceded by a nasal consonant. Even though the glottal stop is not written in Nadëb orthography, its occurences are predictable: if a syllable is vowel-initial or if a word ends with a vowel orthographically, these positions are to be filled with a glottal stop.

Database compiled and annotated by: André Nikulin (September 2015).