Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Tocharian group (Indo-European family).

Languages included: Tocharian B [txr-txb].



Adams 1982 = Adams, Douglas Quentin. 1982. Tocharian A śāku 'headhair' and AB yok '(body) hair'. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 96(1): 167-169.

Adams 1988 = Adams, Douglas Quentin. 1988. Tocharian historical phonology and morphology. New Haven, Conn.: American Oriental Society (AOS 71). // A comprehensive study of diachronic Tocharian phonology and morphology.

Adams 2013 = Adams, Douglas A. 2013. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Revised and greatly enlarged. Amsterdam / New York: Rodopi. // The most recent edition of the Tocharian B Dictionary.

CEToM = Malzahn, Melanie et al. A Comprehensive edition of Tocharian manuscripts. URL: // The most comprehensive online edition of Tocharian texts.

Edgerton 1953 = Franklin Edgerton. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. Grammar and dictionary. Vol. 2: Dictionary. New Haven, Yale Univ. Press. // The most comprehensive dictionary of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit.

Filliozat 1948 = Filliozat, J. 1948. Fragments de textes koutchéens de médecine et de magie. Texte, parallèles sanskrits et tibétains, traduction et glossaire. Paris: Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve.// An edition of Tocharian B medical and magical texts.

Malzahn 2010 = Malzahn, Melanie. 2010. The Tocharian verbal system. (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages and Linguistics, 3.) Leiden, Brill. // A comprehensive study of the Tocharian synchronic and diachronic verbal morphology.

Pinault 2006 = Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2006. Retour sur le numéral 'un' en tokharien. Indogermanische Forschungen 111: 71-97.


I. Tocharian B.

I.1. General.

The corpus for Tocharian B is dated back to the 5th-11th centuries AD. Since Tocharian A is generally believed to have no longer been in active use by the time it was written down, we have decided to represent the Tocharian branch primarily by evidence from Tocharian B. The list of Tocharian B lexemes is primarily based on the dictionary [Adams 2013] and the vocabulary provided by [CEToM] as well as on the grammatical and historical study of the verbal system of Tocharian [Malzahn 2010]. All forms and their meanings have been checked against editions of Tocharian manuscripts [CEToM; Filliozat 1948]. Relevant Tocharian A data and etymological information based on Adams’s reconstruction [Adams 1988; Adams 2013] are provided in the notes as well.

I.2. Transliteration.

The specific characters used for traditional transliteration of the Tocharian script are rendered as follows:

= ʆ
ts = c
c = č
ly = ʎ
ṃ = n
ñ = ɲ
ä = ǝ
a, ā = a; i, ī = i; u, ū = u (it is possible that the sign ā denoted the accented vowel a).

Database compiled and annotated by:
Tocharian B: Anna Kuritsyna, December 2017.