Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Indo-Aryan group (Indo-European family).

Languages included: Vedic Sanskrit (the Atharvaveda), {vda}.


I. General.

Dunkel 2014 = Dunkel, G. E. Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme. Bd. 2. Lexikon. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter. // An etymological dictionary of PIE particles and pronouns.

EWAia I-II = Mayrhofer, M. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. I-II Bde. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter. // A comprehensive etymological dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan.

LIV2 2001 = H. Rix (ed.). Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben. Die Wurzeln und ihre Primärstammbildungen. Wiesbaden: Dr. L. Reichert Verlag. // An etymological dictionary of PIE verbs.

II. Vedic Sanskrit.

BR-1-7 1855-1875 = Bohtlingk, O.; Roth, R. Sanskrit Worterbuch, herausgegeben von der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, bearbeitet von Otto Bohtlingk und Rudolph Roth. Seven vols. St-Petersburg: Eggers. // A comprehensive Sanskrit-German dictionary (including all Vedic lexicon).

Elizarenkova 1989-1999 = Елизаренкова, Т. Я. Ригведа. 3 тома. М.: Наука. // A Russian translation of the Rigveda.

Elizarenkova 2005-2010 = Елизаренкова, Т. Я. Атхарваведа. 3 тома. М.: Наука. // A Russian translation of the Atharvaveda.

Grassmann 1873 = Grassmann, G. Worterbuch zum Rig-Veda. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus. // A comprehensive Vedic-German dictionary of the Rigveda.

Griffith 1895-1896 = Griffith, R. T. H. The hymns of the Atharva-Veda, translated with a popular commentary. Two vols. Benares, India: Lazarus, 1895–1896. // An English translation of the Atharvaveda.

Jamison 1987 = Jamison, S. W. Linguistic and philological remarks on some Vedic body parts. In: C. Watkins (ed.) Studies in Memory of Warren Cowgill (1929-1985). Papers from the Fourth East Coast Indo-European Conference. Cornell University, June 6-9, 1985. Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Jamison-Brereton 2014 = Jamison, S. W.; Brereton, J. P. The Rigveda. The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Three vols. Oxford University Press. // The newest comprehensive English translation of the Rigveda.

Lubotsky 2001 = Lubotsky, A. 2001. The Indo-Iranian substratum. In: Christian Carpelan, Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio (eds.). Early contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: linguistic and archaeological considerations, 301–317. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen seura.

Macdonell 1916 = Macdonell. A Vedic grammar for students. Oxford University Press. // A grammar of the Vedic language with notes.

MW 1899 = Monier-Williams, M. A Sanskrit-English dictionary: etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press. // A comprehensive Sanskrit-English dictionary.

RIVELEX 1-2 = Krisch, Th. (ed). RIVELEX. Rigveda-Lexikon. Bd. 1. Words beginning with “a”. Bd. 2. Words beginning with other vowels than “a”. Graz: Leykam.

Thomson 2004 = Thomson, K. The decipherable Rigveda: a reconsideration of vakṣáṇā. In: Indogermanische Forschungen 109.

Whitney 1881 = Whitney, W. D. Index verborum to the published text of the Atharva-Veda. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 12.

Whitney 1885 = Whitney, W. D. The roots, verb-forms, and primary derivatives of the Sanskrit language: a supplement to his Sanskrit grammar. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel. // A list of the Sanskrit roots and verb-forms (including Vedic).

Whitney-Lanman 1905 = Whitney, W. D.; Lanman, Ch. R. Atharva-veda Samhita. Translated with a critical and exegetical commentary by William Dwight Whitney; revised and brought nearer to completion and edited by Charles Rockwell Lanman. Two halfs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University. // A comprehensive translation of the Atharvaveda.


I. Vedic Sanskrit (Atharvaveda).

I.1. General.

The main source for this list of Vedic Sanskrit is the Atharvaveda-Samhita. The data of this later samhita are more comprehensive than those of the Rigveda; moreover, its language is not nearly as solemn and obscure as Rigvedic, and is chronologically more uniform. All differences between the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda are mentioned in our commentary. All contexts from the Rigveda are cited from [Jamison-Brereton 2014]. Contexts from the Atharvaveda are cited mostly from [Whitney-Lanman 1905], sometimes (for hymns absent in Whitney-Lanman) from [Griffith 1895-1896].

I.2. Transliteration.

The following system of transliteration is used:

a a
i i
u u
r̥̄ r̩ː
l̥̄ l̩ː
ai aːy
au aːw
k k
kh kh
g g
gh gh
c č
ch čh
j ǯ
jh ǯh
ṭh ʈh
ḍh ɖh
t t
th th
d d
dh dh
n n
p p
ph ph
b b
bh bh
m m
y y
r r
l l
v w
h ɦ

(1) {a} can have the phonetic value [ǝ].
(2) The true phonetic value of {ṃ} is disputed. We treat it as the marker of preceding vowel’s nasality.
(3) It is possible that {c}, {ch}, {j}, {jh} are in fact [ɕ], [ɕʰ], [ʓ], [ʓʰ] or [ȶ], [ȶʰ], [ȡ], [ȡʰ].
(4) {r} is phonetically [ɽ].
(5) {v} could be a bilabial approximant.

Database compiled and annotated by:
Vedic Sanskrit: Artem Trofimov, July 2016 / revised November 2018.