Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Armenian group (Indo-European family).

Languages included: Classical Armenian [arm-arc].


I. Classical Armenian.

Agatʻangeɫos 2003 = Yuzbashyan, Karen & Paruyr Muradyan (ed.). 2003. Agatʽangeɫos. Patmutʽiwn hayocʽ. In: Ekawean, Zawēn (ed.). Armenian Classical Authors. Vol. II. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia, pp. 1289-1735. // The most recent critical edition of the text.

Bedrossian 1875-9 = Bedrossian, Matthias. 1875-9. New Dictionary Armenian-English. Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy. // A comprehensive dictionary of Classical Armenian.

Beekes 2010 = Beekes, Robert. 2010. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Leiden: Brill. // The most recent etymological dictionary of Ancient Greek.

Blanchard, Young 1998 = Blanchard, Monica, and Young, Robin. A treatise on God written in Armenian by Eznik of Koɫb (floruit c. 430-c.450). An English translation, with introduction and notes. Peeters, 1998.

Clackson 2008 = Clackson, James P. T. 2008. Classical Armenian. In: Roger D. Woodard (ed.). The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. Cambridge University Press, pp. 124-144. // A grammar sketch of Classical Armenian.

de Vaan, Michiel. Etymological dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages. Brill, 2008.

Djahukian 2010 = Djahukian, Guevorg. Armenian Etymological Dictionary. Erevan: Asoghik, 2010.

Durkin-Meisterernst 2004 = Durkin-Meisterernst, Desmond. 2004. Dictionary of Manichaean texts. Vol. III: Texts from Central Asia and China. Part 1. Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian. Turnhout: Brepols. // An up-to-date dictionary of the Middle Persian and Parthian.

Eɫišē 2003 = Yuzbashyan, Karen & Paruyr Muradyan (ed.). 2003. Eɫišē. Vasn Vardanacʽ ew hayocʽ paterazmin. In: Ekawean, Zawēn (ed.). Armenian Classical Authors. Vol. I. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia, pp. 515-764. // The most recent critical edition of the text.

Eusebius 1846 = de Saint-Brisson, Seguier (ed. et tr.). La Préparation évangélique, traduite du grec d'Eusèbe Pamphile. Paris: Gaume frères, 1846.

Eznik 2003 = Kʻeawsēean, Yakob (ed.), Eznik Koɫbacʻi. Eɫc aɫandocʻ. In: Ekawean, Zawēn (ed.), Armenian Classical Authors. Vol. 1. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia, pp. 431‒512.

Greppin 1990 = Greppin, John. Armenian insect names. Annual of Armenian Linguistics 11 (1990), p. 67‒73.

Khachatoorian 2001 = Khachatoorian, Khachatoor. Grigor Narekatsi. The Book of Sadness. Yerevan: Naiki, 2001.

Klingenschmitt 1982 = Klingenschmitt, Gert. 1982. Das altarmenische Verbum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. // A comprehensive study of the Old Armenian diachronic verbal morphology.

Koriwn 2003 = Yuzbashyan, Karen & Paruyr Muradyan (ed.). 2003. Vark` Mesropay vardapeti. In: Ekawean, Zawēn (ed.). Armenian Classical Authors. Vol. I. Antelias: Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia, pp. 226-272. // The most recent critical edition of the text.

Koriwn 1980 = Pivazyan, Ēmanuel (ed.). 1980. Koriwn: The life of Mashtots. Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press. // The edition includes the earlier edition of the text with the Modern Armenian translation by M. Abeɫean (first edition 1941, Yerevan), the English translation by B. Norehad (first edition 1964, Yerevan), and the Russian translation by Sh. V. Smbghaatyan and K. A. Melik-Oghajanyan (1962, Moscow).

Künzle 1984 = Künzle, Beda. 1984. Das altarmenische Evangelium. Bern: Peter Lang. Teil I. Edition zweier altarmenischer Handschriften. // The most recent edition of the four Gospels based on two principal codexes, Matenadaran 6200 (year 887) and Matenadaran 2374 (year 989).

Martirosyan 2010 = Martirosyan, Hrach. 2010. Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon. Leiden / Boston: Brill. // The most up-to-date etymological dictionary of the inherited Indo-European lexicon in Armenian.

Narekatsi 1827 = Awetikʻean, Gabriēl. Narek aghōtʻitsʻ: hamaṛōt ew zgushawor lutsmambkʻ batsʻahayteal miangam ew ayzhm erkrord angam haweluatsov. Venice: St. Lazar, 1827.

NASB = The New American Standard Bible. Online edition based on the 1995 printed edition: // The standard translation of the Bible excluding the Deuterocanonical books.

NBHL = Awetik‘ean, Gabriēl et al (eds.). 1836-1837. Nor baṙgirk‘ haykazean lezui. Venice: St Lazar. // A comprehensive dictionary of Old Armenian with ample textual references.

NRSV = The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Online edition based on the 1989 printed edition: // The standard translation of the Bible including the Deuterocanonical books.

Olsen 1999 = Olsen, Birgit. 1999. Noun in Biblical Armenian: Origin and Word-Formation with Special Emphasis on the Indo-European Heritage. Tubingen: De Gruyter Mouton. // A comprehensive study of the Old Armenian diachronic nominal morphology and etymology based on the lexicon of the Armenian Bible.

Philo 1822 = Awgereancʻ, Mhitʻar (ed.). P'iloni Ebrayecʻwoy bankʻ erekʻ čʻew i loys ǝncayealkʻ. Venice: St. Lazar, 1822.

Schmitt 2007 = Schmitt, Rüdigger. 2007. Grammatik des Klassisch-Armenischen mit sprachvergleichenden Erläuterungen 2., durchges. Aufl. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität. // An introduction to the historical grammar of Old Armenian.

Thomson 1976 = Thomson, Robert W. 1976. Agathangelos. History of the Armenians. Translation and commentary. Albany: State University of New York Press. // An up-to-date English translation of Agathangelos' History of the Armenians.

Thomson 1982 = Thomson, Robert W. 1982. Eḷishē: History of Vardan and the Armenian War. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. // An up-to-date English translation of Eɫišē’s History of Vardan and the Armenian War.

Zōhrapean 1805 = Zōhrapean, Hovhannēs (ed.). 1805. Astowacašowncʻ matean hin ew nor ktakaranacʻ. Venetik. // A complete edition of the Armenian Bible.


I. Classical Armenian.

I.1. General.

The Old Armenian forms were extracted from the standard Old Armenian - English dictionary [Bedrossian 1875-9], and checked against the editions of the Armenian Bible [Künzle 1984; Zōhrapean 1805] as well as against the relevant editions of the early classical texts included into the Armenian Classical Authors series [Agatʻangeɫos 2003; Eɫišē 2003; Koriwn 2003]. The main part of our corpus is dated back to the 5th century AD.

The entries are provided with concise grammatical information on the declension and conjugation types when applicable. The textual evidence illustrating the use of a word is followed by comments on its origin. Some entries include information on lexical items which are attested as contextual synonyms of the entry lemmas in the early classical texts.

I.2. Transliteration.

Two transliteration methods are applied in the entries. The Classical Armenian lemmas that are discussed as candidates to the Swadesh list are transliterated using the Unified Transcription System (UTS) for the Global Lexicostatical Database. The textual evidence is rendered according to the traditional armenological transliteration.

The general disclaimer concerning the use of UTS for an ancient language applies. The exact phonetic interpretation of phonemes, let alone allophones, is impossible for Classical Armenian despite its rather precise alphabetic writing system. The UTS notation, introduced to maintain the cross-linguistic comparison of the phonological shape of words, should rather be considered as a variety of phonological transliteration than a phonetic transcription. See [Clackson 2008] for the primary discussion of Classical Armenian phonetics.

The traditional and UTS correspondences to the letters of the Armenian alphabet are given in the table below:

Armenian alphabet Traditional transliteration UTS
ա a a
բ b b
գ g g
դ d d
ե e ɛ
զ z z
է ē e
ը ǝ ǝ
ժ ž ž
ի i i
լ l l
խ x x
ծ c c
կ k k
հ h h
ձ j ʒ
ղ ɫ ɫ
ճ č č
մ m m
յ y y
ն n n
շ š š
ո o o
չ čʻ čʰ
պ p p
ջ ǯ
ռ r
ս s s
վ v v
տ t t
ր r ɹ
ւ w w
ու u u

Database compiled and annotated by:
Classical Armenian: Petr Kocharov, July 2017 / revised October 2018.