Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Hittite (Old Hittite) language (Anatolian group, Indo-European family).

Languages included: Hittite (Old) [ana-oht].


Main sources

CHD = The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Chicago, 1980-. // Extensive synchronic dictionary of the Hittite language. Ongoing edition.

HED = J. Puhvel. Hittite Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 1-. Berlin - NY - Amsterdam, 1984-. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite language with extensive treatment of synchronic textual data. Ongoing edition.

HEG = J. Tischler. Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar. Innsbruck, 1977-. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite language with analysis of synchronic textual data. Ongoing edition.

Hoffner & Melchert 2008 = H. A. Hoffner, Jr.; H. C. Melchert. A grammar of the Hittite language. Part 1: Reference grammar. Eisenbrauns, 2008. // Up-to-date descriptive grammar of the Hittite language.

HW2 = J. Friedrich & A. Kammenhuber. Hethitisches Wörterbuch. 2nd ed. Heidelberg, 1975-. // Extensive synchronic dictionary of the Hittite language. Ongoing edition.

Kloekhorst 2008 = A. Kloekhorst. Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon. Brill, 2008. // Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited vocabulary with analysis of synchronic textological data.

Melchert 1993 = H. C. Melchert. Cuneiform Luvian lexicon. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1993. // Dictionary of the Cuneiform Luwian corpus.

Melchert 2004 = H. C. Melchert. A Dictionary of the Lycian Language. 2nd ed. Ann Arbor / New York, 2004. // Dictionary of the Lycian language.

Payne 2010 = A. Payne. Hieroglyphic Luwian. An introduction with original texts. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden, 2010. // Detailed introduction to the Luwian hieroglyphic script and language.

Weeks 1985 = D. M. Weeks. Hittite Vocabulary: An Anatolian Appendix to Buck's Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. PhD dissertation, University of California, 1985. // A thematic glossary of the basic terms of the Hittite language.

Additional sources

Catsanicos 1996 = J. Catsanicos. L'apport de la bilingue de Hattusa à la lexicologie hourrite. In: Amurru 1: Mari, Ébla et les hourrites. Paris, 1996. Pp. 197-296. // Lexicographic treatment of the data from the Hurrian-Hittite bilingua.

Cohen 2010 = Y. Cohen. Rara avis: A study of the HU section of the Sa vocabulary. In: H. D. Baker et al. (eds). Your praise is sweet. A memorial volume for Jeremy Black from students, colleagues and friends. London, 2010. Pp. 29-40.

Eichner 2010 = H. Eichner. Laudatio hostiae und laudatio victimae im Palaischen. In: Hethitica 16. Peeters, 2010, pp. 39-58.

Melchert 2009 = H. C. Melchert. Deictic pronouns in Anatolian. In: K. Yoshida & B. Vine (ed.). East and West. Papers in Indo-European Studies. Bremen, 2009. Pp. 151-161.

Nikolaev 1985 = С. Л. Николаев. Северокавказские заимствования в хеттском и древнегреческом [North Caucasian loanwords in Hittite and Ancient Greek]. In: Древняя Анатолия. Москва, 1985. С. 60-73.

Pecchioli Daddi 2010 = F. Pecchioli Daddi. The Hittite word talla-. In: J. Klinger et al. (eds). Investigationes Anatolicae. Gedenkschrift für Erich Neu (StBoT 52). Wiesbaden, 2010.

Ünal 1973 = A. Ünal. Zum Status der "Augures" bei den Hethitern. In: Revue hittite et asiatique, tome 31, 1973, pp. 27-56.

van den Hout 2010 = Th. van den Hout. The Hieroglyphic Luwian signs L. 255 and 256 and once again Karatepe XI. In: I. Singer (ed.). Luwian and Hittite Studies Presented to J. David Hawkins on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. Tel Aviv, 2010. Pp. 234-243.


1. General.

The present 110-item wordlist is generally based on Old Hittite data, although it also includes a very small number of terms that are exclusively attested in Middle or New Hittite sources. The list is provisionally dated to 1500 BC.

Note on datings: OH means Old Hittite sources, MH - Middle Hittite, NH - New Hittite. The plus sign "+" means that the form is attested from the mentioned period and onwards.

2. Transcription.

In order to adhere to the GLD transcriptional standard, which facilitates automatic comparison between various languages and language groups, we have to rewrite Hittite h / hh as x / xx and z / zz as c / cc. This only affects forms in the main field. According to general GLD principles, traditional transcription with h & z is added within curly brackets {}.

We transliterate the standard Hittitological alphabet in the following way. Non-intervocalic stops are given as p, t, k. In the intervocalic position two series are opposed: geminated and non-geminated, which we transliterate as follows:

pp, bb pp
p, b b
tt, dd tt
t, d d
kk, gg kk
k, g g

Fricatives and sonorants in the intervocalic position are opposed in a similar way:

mm mm
m m
nn nn
n n
ll ll
l l
rr rr
r r
šš ss
š s
zz cc
z c
ḫḫ xx

We proceed from the four vowel system:

a a
e e
i i
u, ú u

Vowel length (plene writing) is not generally noted.

Database compiled and annotated by: A. Kassian, May 2011 (we are thankful to I. Yakubovich for a number of valuable remarks on Luwian data) / Revised March 2014 (some Anatolian non-Hittite forms added plus some etymological notes and technical details imroved).