Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Tequistlatecan group (Hokan family).

Languages included:
Chontal, Highland Oaxaca [teq-hch].


Main sources

Turner & Turner 1971 = Turner, Paul; Turner, Shirley. Chontal to Spanish-English Spanish to Chontal Dictionary. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. // A dictionary of Highland Chontal. Textual examples in the dictionary seem to be constructed by the authors rather than taken from real texts.

Additional sources

NT 2009 = Lataiqui' loya'apa iɫe al c'a lixpic'epa ȽanDios. El Nuevo Testamento en el chontal de la sierra de Oaxaca. La Liga Bíblica versión electrónica 2009 // A Highland Chontal translation of the New Testament. Available online at

O'Connor 2007 = O’Connor, Loretta. Motion, transfer and transformation: the grammar of change in lowland Chontal. (Studies in Language Companion Series, v. 95) Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company // A monograph on the Lowland Chontal verbs, describing change of location, position and state. Contains a short grammatical sketch of Lowland Chontal.

Turner 1966 = Turner, Paul R. Highland Chontal Grammar. An unpublished PhD dissertation. The University of Chicago // A grammar of Highland Chontal, written in the tagmemic framework.

Turner 1973 = Turner, Paul R. Highland Chontal Dialect Survey. In: Linguistics. Volume 11 (1973), Issue 104, pp. 95–104 // A report on the survey of Highland Chontal dialects.

Waterhouse 1969 = Waterhouse, Viola. Oaxaca Chontal in Reference to Proto-Chontal. In: International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Jul., 1969), pp. 231-233 // An article about Proto-Chontal reconstruction.



The Highland Chontal orthography (in the first column) and phonetic transcription (in the second column) used in [Turner & Turner 1971] are transliterated as follows:

a a, A a
b b b
c s s
c k, kh k
ch č
ch´ tš´ čʼ
d d d
d đ ð
e e, E e
f f f
g g g
h ʔ ʔ
i i, I i
j h h
jn Nn n̥n (before consonant)
jn hn hn (before vowel)
jm Mm m̥m (before consonant)
jm hm hm (before vowel)
N̯η ŋ̥ŋ (before consonant)
hŋ (before vowel)
ju W ʍ
l l l
ɫ ɫ ɬ
ɫ´ tɫ´ ƛʼ
ll y y
l.l ll ll
m m m
n n n
η η ŋ
o o, O o
p p p
qu k k
r r
s s s
x š š
t t t
ts ts c
ts´ ts´
u u, U u
v ƀ β
w w w
y y y
z s s

Database compiled by: M. Zhivlov (April 2012).