Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Shastan group (Hokan family).

Languages included:
Shasta [sha-sha].


Main source

Silver 1961 = Silver, Shirley. [Shasta vocabulary]. // A wordlist of Shasta, collected in July 1961 for the Survey of California Indian Languages (informant Sargent Sambo). Represents a 14-page standard Survey vocabulary sheet, filled in by the Shasta data in phonemic transcription. Available online at (item number: Silver.002).

Additional sources

Bright & Olmsted 1959 = Bright, William, & D. L. Olmsted. A Shasta Vocabulary. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 20. P. 1-55. // A 55-page vocabulary containing Shasta words collected by the authors, as well as data from XIXth century wordlists. W. Bright’s data are in phonemic notation, but he does not distinguish between hissing and hushing affricates. D. L. Olmsted’s data are in a non-phonemic notation.
McLendon 1964 = McLendon, Sally. Northern Hokan (B) and (C): a Comparison of Eastern Pomo and Yana. In: W. Bright (ed.). Studies in Californian Linguistics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. P. 126-144. // Lexical comparison of two Hokan languages with additional data from other members of Hokan family. Shasta data are from unpublished field notes by S. Silver.
Silver 1964 = Silver, Shirley. Shasta and Karok: a Binary Comparison. In: W. Bright (ed.). Studies in Californian Linguistics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. P. 170-181. // Lexical comparison of two Hokan languages. Contains unpublished field data on Shasta, collected by the author.
Silver 1966 = Silver, Shirley. The Shasta Language. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. // A descriptive grammar of the Shasta language, based on the author’s field work with two informants: Sargent Sambo and Clara Wicks.
Silver 1980 = Silver, Shirley. Shasta and Konomihu. In: K. Klar, M. Langdon, S. Silver (eds.) American Indian and Indoeuropean Studies. Papers in Honor of Madison S. Beeler. The Hague, Paris, New York: Mouton Publishers. P. 245-263. // An analysis of data on extinct Konomihu language and its comparison with closely related Shasta.


Morphological analysis of Shasta forms is based on [Silver 1966].
Names of Shasta informants are abbreviated as follows: SS – Sargent Sambo, CW – Clara Wicks, FW – Fred Wicks.
Since Sargent Sambo and Clara Wicks were the main informants of both S. Silver and W. Bright, data from Silver’s publications and Bright’s data from [Bright & Olmsted 1959] can be used as complementing each other. We do not use D. L. Olmsted’s data because of their phonetic unreliability. Data from XIXth century word lists are adduced only when they significantly differ from the more modern sources.


According to [Silver 1966: 33], after u or w, k and are labialized or followed by a non-phonemic w. When transcribing data from [Bright & Olmsted 1959; Silver 1961; Silver 1964] we omit this non-phonemic labialization. Otherwise Silver’s transcription remains unchanged, except that, accoring to UTS rules, glottalized consonants are written with an apostrophe after the consonant, whereas in Silver’s transcription apostrophe is written above the consonant.
The following symbols in Bright’s transcription were transliterated into UTS: 1) following S. Silver’s phonemic analysis, we write kw and kʼw instead of Bright’s and kʷʼ (except cases when labialization is non-phonemic, see above); 2) geminated consonants are written as instead of CC; 3) long vowels are written as instead of .

Database compiled by: M. Zhivlov (December 2012).