Annotated Swadesh wordlist for the Chimariko group (Hokan family).

Languages included:
Chimariko [chi-chi].


Main source

Berman 2001 = Berman, Howard. Chimariko Linguistic Material. In: V. Golla and S. O’Neill (eds.). The Collected Works of Edward Sapir. Vol. 14: Northwest California Linguistics, pp. 1039-1076. // An edition of Sapir’s field notes on Chimariko (collected in 1927) with a sketch of Chimariko phonology and morphology by H. Berman.

Additional sources

Dixon 1910 = Dixon, Roland B. The Chimariko Indians and Language. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 5. No. 5, pp. 293-380. Berkeley: University of California Press. // An ethnographic sketch of the Chimariko, accompanied by a short grammar, texts and vocabulary of the Chimariko language. As a rule, Dixon does not distinguish in his records between simple, aspirated and glottalized stops and often writes vowel length instead of glottal stop.

Jany 2009 = Jany, Carmen. Chimariko Grammar: Areal and Typological Perspective. University of California Publications in Linguistics, Volume 142. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press // A descriptive grammar of Chimariko based on the field notes of J. P. Harrington (collected between 1921 and 1928).


1. General.

Chimariko forms in the main field are those recorded by Sapir from his main informant, Abe Bush, if not stated otherwise. In the “Commentsɦ field we adduce forms recorded from the rest of Sapir’s informants as well as those recorded by R. B. Dixon, A. Kroeber (from [Dixon 1910]) and J. P. Harrington (from [Jany 2009]).

The sources of Chimariko data are abbreviated as follows: Sapir/AB – forms recorded by E. Sapir from Abe Bush, Sapir/MZ – forms recorded by E. Sapir from Martha Ziegler, Sapir/S – forms recorded by E. Sapir from Saxey Kidd, Dixon – forms recorded by R. B. Dixon from Polly Dyer or Friday, Kroeber/F – forms recorded by A. Kroeber from Friday, Kroeber/DT– forms recorded by A. Kroeber from Dr. Tom, Harrington/SN – forms recorded by J. P. Harrington from Sally Noble, Harrington/LM – forms recorded by J. P. Harrington from Lucy Montgomery.

2. Transcription.

One general note is in order: Chimariko had phonemic distinctions between hissing sibilants and affricates, hushing sibilants and affricates, and retroflex stops. However, comparison between words recorded by Sapir and Harrington shows many inconsistencies in the transcription of these sounds by Sapir (Harrington’s data are apparently more reliable). Palatalized stops ( and the like) in the speech of Sapir’s main informant, Abe Bush, generally correspond to retroflex stops of other informants, but occasionally may correspond to hushing affricates. Hissing-hushing affricates (tś, transliterated by us as ) in Sapir’s phonetic transcription may correspond to phonemic retroflex stops, hushing and hissing affricates.

The phonetic transcription of Sapir is transliterated as follows (this simplified transliteration must not be viewed as phonemic transcription):

a, ȧ, ä, α, ar a
e, ɛ e
i, ι i
o, ɔ o
u, υ u
B, p p
D, t t
tṛ ʈ
Dʸ, tʸ
tʸʿ tʰʸ
tʾʸ tʼʸ
ts, Dz c
tś, Dś
tśʿ cʰʸ
tʾś cʼʸ
tc, Dj, dj č
tcʿ čʰ
tʾc čʼ
G, k k
G̣, q q
s s
c š
x x
h, ʿ h
ʾ ʔ
m m
n n
l l
r, ṛ r
w w
y y

The following symbols of Dixon’s transcription have been transliterated by us:

e, è, E e
ö ǝ
c š
ts c
tc č
dj ǯ
h, ʿ h
ʾ ʔ

The following symbols used in [Jany 2009] are transliterated into UTS:

ṭʰ ʈʰ
ṭʼ ʈʼ

Database compiled by: M. Zhivlov (November 2012).