Annotated Swadesh wordlists for the Chumashan group (Chumashan family).

Languages included:
Ineseño (Samala) [chm-ins]; Barbareño [chm-bar].


Main sources

Applegate 2007 = The Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians in collaboration with Dr. Richard B. Applegate, Ph.D. and the Santa Ynez Chumash Education Committee. 2007. Samala-English Dictionary: A Guide to the Samala Language of the Ineseño Chumash People. // A voluminous 608-page dictionary of the Ineseño (Samala) language, created by R.B. Applegate for purposes of language revitalization. Entirely based on J.P. Harrington's field notes, collected between 1911 and 1919. The main informant of Harrington was María Solares (1842-1923), one of the last fluent speakers of Ineseño.

Whistler 1980 = Whistler, Kenneth W. (with the aid of Michael Macko, Sally Schultz, Kim Lawson, Dana Howe). 1980. An Interim Barbareño Chumash Dictionary (of Barbareño as spoken by Mary Yee). // A self-pubished dictionary (96 pages), compiled from the published and unpublished papers by Madison Beeler, who in 1954-1961 worked with the last speaker of Barbareño, Mary Yee (1897-1965), and also from the notebooks written by Mary Yee herself.

Additional sources

Applegate 1972 = Applegate, Richard Brian. 1972. Ineseño Chumash Grammar. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. // A detailed (542 pages) descriptive grammar of Ineseño, entirely based on J.P. Harrington's field notes, collected between 1911 and 1919.

Beeler 1976 = Beeler, M. S. 1976. Barbareño Chumash Grammar: A Farrago. In: Hokan Studies. Papers from the First Conference on Hokan Languages held in San Diego, California, April 23-25, 1970. Ed. by Margaret Langdon & Shirley Silver. The Hague, Paris: Mouton. // A short sketch of Barbareño grammar, based on the author's fieldwork with the last speaker of the language, Mary Yee (1897-1965).


I. Ineseño.

I.1. General.

Ineseño (Samala) was documented by J. P. Harrington between 1911 and 1919. Harrington’s fieldnotes on Ineseño (more than 9000 pages), now available on the site of Smithsonian Institution (, were analyzed by R. B. Applegate, who wrote a grammar of the language [Applegate 1972] and a comprehensive dictionary, published by the Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians with the aim of language revitalization.

I.2. Transliteration.

Transliteration mainly involves issues with the glottalization and glottal stop. In [Applegate 1972], glottal stop is marked as ʔ, whereas all glottalized consonants (stops, fricatives and resonants) are written with an apostrophe above the consonant. According to UTS rules, we write apostrophe after the glottalized consonant. In [Applegate 2007], apostrophe marks both glottal stop and glottalization of consonants; it is written after stops, but before fricatives and resonants. We write apostrophe after all glottalized consonants, whereas apostophe marking glottal stop (i.e. word-initially before a vowel, word-internally between vowels and word-finally after a vowel) is converted to ʔ. Additionally, x, used in both sources to represent the uvular fricative, is converted to χ.

II. Barbareño.

II.1. General.

Barbareño Chumash was documented first by J. P. Harrington, whose fieldnotes are available on the site of Smithsonian Institution (, and later, in 1954-1961, by Madison Beeler, who worked with the last native speaker of a Chumash language, Mary Yee (she was also one of Harrington’s informants). Beeler published a concise, but very informative sketch of Barbareño grammar [Beeler 1976]. On the basis of his lexical materials and Mary Yee’s own notes, Kenneth Whistler compiled a self-published Barbareño dictionary [Whistler 1980].

II.2. Transliteration.

The following symbols are transliterated into UTS:

' ʔ
сс сʰ
с' сʼ
ch č
cch čʰ
ch' čʼ
sh š
ssh šʰ
sh' šʼ
x χ
x' χʼ

Database compiled by: M. Zhivlov (November 2017).