This is the database published as S. L. Nikolayev, S. A. Starostin, "A North
Caucasian Etymological Dictionary", Moscow 1994 (excluding the preface and
1. Protoform. The reconstructed Proto North Caucasian form (often equal to
Proto East Caucasian, in cases when no West Caucasian reflex is present).
2. Meaning. The reconstructed meaning of the PNC form.
3. Nakh protoform. The Proto-Nakh form in S. Nikolayev's (modified Imnaishvili)
reconstruction. The field is at the same time a link to the Nakh database.
4. Avaroandian protoform. There are in fact no Avaroandian protoforms available.
The field normally contains the Proto-Andian forms (in somewhat modified Gudava's
reconstructions), from which the Avar forms are usually deducible. In some cases -
when we only have an Avar form, without Andian matches - the protoform presented is
a mere construct (an idea of what the Andian protoform would look like if there were
actual Andian reflexes). The field is at the same time a link to the Avaroandian
5. Tsezian protoform. The Proto-Tsez form in S. Nikolayev's reconstruction, at the
same time - a link to the Tsezian database.
6. Lak form. The actual Lak form (no Proto-Lak reconstruction is presented, nor
is it necessary because of extreme closeness of Lak dialects), as well as a link
to the Lak database.
7. Dargwa protoform. The Proto-Dargwa form in S. Nikolayev's reconstruction, at the
same time a link to the Dargwa database.
8. Lezghian protoform. The Proto-Lezghian form in S. Starostin's reconstruction, as
well as a link to the Lezghian database.
9. Khinalug form. The actual Khinalug form (no Proto-Khinalug reconstruction is
available, and is hardly possible because there is only one spoken dialect), and a
link to the Khinalug database.
10. Abkhazo-Adyghe protoform. The Proto West Caucasian form in S. Starostin's
reconstruction, and a link to the West Caucasian (Abkhazo-Adyghe) database.
11. Comments. All sorts of explanatory remarks.