The etymological database for the Khoekhoe language subgroup, linked directly to the general Central Khoisan database.
Data sources: the Khoekhoe subgroup is small and essentially represented by just two languages - Nama, for which several near-exhaustive dictionaries are available (main sources here are Haacke 1998 and, for additional support, Rust 1969), and the extinct !Ora (Korana; Meinhof 1930, Wuras 1920). The amount of data available for Nama exceeds !Ora data several times over, and most of it has been entered in the database (so, strictly speaking, a lot of the entries are simply "Nama" rather than "Proto-Khoekhoe", but, with the obvious borrowings taken out, all of the data have a strong probability of going back to Proto-Khoekhoe as well). Other than Nama and !Ora, a few lexical items are known from the extinct G(i)riqua language; most of them have been recovered from Meinhof's !Ora dictionary and entered in the "Notes" field.
The database consists of the following fields:
1. Proto-Khoekhoe: the reconstructed protoform for Khoekhoe (frequently based exclusively on Nama).
2. Meaning: the general meaning(s) of the reconstructed stem.
3. Nama: the default source is Haacke 1998; in most cases, forms from the "classic" dictionary of Krönlein-Rust (R.) are given as well. The more up-to-date edition of Haacke & Eiseb's dictionary (2002) could not, as of yet, be used (the major difference is that Haacke 1998 does not include information on tones).
4. !Ora: the default source is Meinhof 1930. Where possible, forms are also given from Wuras 1920, although the quality of his transcription is much worse. It should be noted, though, that Wuras' dictionary includes some valuable entries that are not present in Meinhof 1930.
5. Notes: additional comments and considerations. This field also contains occasional G(i)riqua items, found in Meinhof 1930; and a large number of comparanda with Zhu|'hoan (North Khoisan), some of them maybe indicative of genetic relationship, but most representing recent loanwords.
6. References: bibliographical links.
Notes on transcription:
For both Nama and !Ora, in most cases the original transcription has been retained. In the case of Nama, this is due to the fact that this language has an official orthography that needs to be respected; as for !Ora, all of the sources on this language are older than 1980 and therefore less adaptable for transcription unification.
Click influxes are: | = dental click, ǂ = palatal click, ! = alveolar click, || = lateral click.
Click effluxes are: zero (-g- in Nama, no special marking in !Ora and Proto-Khoekhoe; this is due to the fact that both languages have merged the original zero and voiced efflux, with Nama always having the voiced variant and !Ora the voiceless one); glottal stop (-ʔ- in !Ora and Proto-Khoekhoe, no special marking in Nama); velar affricate (-kx- in Proto-Khoekhoe, -xʔ- in !Ora; Nama regularly merges the velar affricate efflux with the glottal stop); aspiration (-h- everywhere); velar fricative (-x- in !Ora and Proto-Khoekhoe, -kh- in Nama); nasalisation (ɳ|, etc. in Proto-Khoekhoe; -n- in Nama and !Ora).
Non-click consonants: Proto-Khoekhoe c = Nama ts = hissing voiceless affricate (regularly > th in !Ora); ʔ = glottal stop.
Vowels: the tilde sign denotes nasalization in !Ora and Proto-Khoekhoe, but in regular Nama orthography nasalization is regularly denoted by the circumflex sign (â, etc.); á, à, ǎ, â, ȧ = tonal markings (used only for !Ora; Wuras marks tones with small index numbers). Vowel length is marked in Nama orthography, but is not phonologically relevant (all word-final vowels are automatically long).
Notes on reconstructions:
Correspondences and reconstructed proto-phonemes in most cases follow Vossen 1997.