The etymological database for the Central Khoisan (Khoe) language group, linked directly to the "Macro-Khoisan" database (higher level) and leading to subordinate databases for Khoekhoe, West Central Khoisan, and East Central Khoisan (lower levels).
The Khoe reconstruction in this database mostly follows the system of phonetic correspondences originally proposed in Vossen 1997; most of the correspondence tables and development rules can be found in that particular work. Likewise, more than half of the etymologies in the database are taken directly from that source, with additional comments from G. Starostin where they were deemed necessary. The most important difference from Vossen's system here is the introduction of uvular stops (*q, *G) and uvular click effluxes (*-q-) which are generally preserved in Non-Khoekhoe but merge with regular velar stops and effluxes in Khoekhoe.
The only other published source for Khoe etymologies remains Baucom 1974; references to it can be found throughout the database, but it should be kept in mind that Baucom's research is generally unsatisfactory due to relying on many outdated and mistranscribed sources.
New etymologies are mainly based on material drawn from several large dictionaries of such languages as Nama, Kxoe, and Naro. Scarcity of available data on other languages currently prevents the database from becoming an exhaustive source. According to the standard ToB practice, all the items on the Swadesh list are treated as potential proto-roots even when they are represented only in one language and/or subgrouping (unless, of course, they are identified as borrowings).
The database consists of the following fields:
1. Proto-Khoe: the protoform for PCK. The forms are given either exactly as reconstructed in Vossen 1997 or according to the same system of correspondences. Tonal markings are always highly approximate, reflecting statistically frequent variants rather than a strict system of correspondences.
2. Meaning: the general meaning(s) of the reconstructed stem.
3. Khoisan etymology: link to the "Macro-Khoisan" database where available.
4. Proto-Khoekhoe: reflexation in the Khoekhoe daughter branch, linked to the Khoekhoe database.
5. Proto-West Khoe: reflexation in the (hypothetical) PWK daughter branch, linked to the PWK database.
6. Proto-East Khoe: reflexation in the PEK daughter branch, linked to the PEK database.
7. Notes: additional comments and considerations. The field also includes additional comparative data from several CK idioms (mostly Khoekhoe) taken from Baucom 1974 (always marked as "Baucom").
13. References: bibliographical links.
Notes on transcription of Proto-Khoe entries:
Clicks: | = dental click, ǂ = palatal click, ! = alveolar click, || = lateral click. The sign $ denotes an unidentified click influx (this only happens where all the data are drawn from old sources like Bleek 1956 and the evidence is highly ambiguous).
Click effluxes include zero (no special marking), voiced articulation (ɡ|, etc.), nasalisation (ɳ|, etc.), aspiration (|h, etc.), velar fricative (|x, etc.), velar affricate (|kx, etc.), uvular stop (|q, etc.), and the glottal stop (|ʔ, etc.).
Non-click consonants: c, ʒ = hissing voiceless and voiced affricates (= ts and dz in Vossen's original transcription); q = uvular voiceless stop; ʔ = glottal stop; ɣ = velar voiced fricative (tentatively set up in a few reconstructions, not attested in the actual languages).
Vowels: ɛ, ɔ = open correlates to closed e, o. The tilde sign denotes nasalisation; á, à, ǎ, â = tonal markings.
For details on transcription of specific languages and intermediate reconstructions please refer to the corresponding databases.